Abstract only
British POW families, 1939–45

During the Second World War, some 250,000 British servicemen were taken captive either by the Axis powers or the Japanese, as a result of which their wives and families became completely dependent on the military and civil authorities for news of their loved ones and for financial and material support. This book outlines the nature of their plight, and shows how they attempted to overcome the particular difficulties they faced during and in the immediate aftermath of hostilities. It opens up a whole new area of analysis and examines the experiences of the millions of service dependents created by total war. Taking as its starting point the provisions made by pre-Second World War British governments to meet the needs of its service dependents, the book then goes on to focus on the most disadvantaged elements of this group – the wives, children and dependents of men taken prisoner – and the changes brought about by the exigencies of total war. Further chapters reflect on how these families organised to lobby government and the strategies they adopted to circumvent apparent bureaucratic ineptitude and misinformation. The book contributes to our understanding of the ways in which welfare provision was developed during the Second World War.

Author: Steven King

This book explores the experiences of the sick poor between the 1750s and through the so-called crisis of the Old Poor Law ending in the 1830s. It provides a comprehensive and colourful overview of the nature, scale and negotiation of medical welfare. At its core stand the words and lives of the poor themselves, reconstructed in painstaking detail to show that medical welfare became a totemic issue for parochial authorities by the 1830s. The book suggests that the Old Poor Law confronted a rising tide of sickness by the early nineteenth century. While there are spectacular instances of parsimony and neglect in response to rising need, in most places and at most times, parish officers seem to have felt moral obligations to the sick. Indeed, we might construct their responses as considerate and generous. To some extent this reflected Christian paternalism but also other factors such as a growing sense that illness, even illness among the poor, was and should be remediable and a shared territory of negotiation between paupers, advocates and officials. The result was a canvas of medical welfare with extraordinary depth. By the 1820s, more of the ill-health of ordinary people was captured by the poor law and being doctored or sojourning in an institution became part of pauper and parochial expectation. These trends are brought to vivid life in the words of the poor and their advocates, such that the book genuinely offers a re-interpretation of the Old Poor Law from the bottom up.

The influence of bureaucracy, market and psychology
Author: Nanna Mik-Meyer

Since the 1990s, European welfare states have undergone substantial changes regarding their objectives, areas of intervention and instruments of use. There has been an increasing move towards the prioritisation of the involvement of citizens and the participation of civil society. This book focuses on the altered (powerful) conditions for encounters between citizens and welfare workers. It uses the concept of soft power, which, inter alia, allows for the investigations of the ways in which individuals manipulate each other in an effort to achieve their desired goals. The first part of the book discusses extracts from state-of-the-art research on professions and expertise, and the perception of power that guides the analyses. It also discusses the overall theoretical positioning when analysing encounters between welfare workers and citizens as co-productive and interactionist. The second part presents analyses to show how a bureaucratic context affects the encounter between administrators and clients, and how a market context affects the encounter between service providers and consumers/customers. The analysis of how a psychology-inspired context affects the encounter between coaches and coaches is also provided. All three contexts are to be perceived as Weberian ideal types, in other words, theoretical constructs based on observations of the real world. The concluding part of the book emphasises on the role of the principles of the bureaucracy, the norms from psychology, and the values of the market in the welfare encounter. Key points of the book are summarised in the conclusion.

Nanna Mik-Meyer

3 Soft power and welfare work Introduction Investigations of the encounter between welfare workers and citizens must use a concept of power that does not automatically privilege, for instance, the particular profession of welfare workers, as is done in much literature on professions. The concept of power must be based on a dialectic relationship between what can be called the objective structures and the subjective experiences of these structures (Giddens’ [1984] concept of structuration). To situate analyses of welfare encounters within the structure

in The power of citizens and professionals in welfare encounters
Nanna Mik-Meyer

2 Professions, de-professionalisation and welfare work Introduction As stated in the introduction, the concept of welfare worker makes it p ­ ossible to analyse the encounter between citizens and a broad group of people: those who have both long (professionals) and short (semi-­professionals) educations, as well as employees without any formal training for conducting welfare work. An important feature – and common denominator – of these people is that their work lives involve (or even revolve around) encounters with citizens in welfare institutions, encounters

in The power of citizens and professionals in welfare encounters
Steven King

6 Wider medical welfare Introduction On 19 March 1834 George Taylor, proprietor of the ‘Norwich Truss Manufactory’, sent a printed bill to Wighton (Norfolk). Enclosed with the bill was an ‘Improved Double Truss (38 inches)’ ordered for John Ladell at the cost of £1 5s. A handwritten addendum expressed hopes that the truss: may suit your workman and as I conclude his Hernia is bad, I have sent two [extra] springs in case the main springs are not strong enough, which can be applied by sliding off the casing and letting the extra springs embrace the main one

in Sickness, medical welfare and the English poor, 1750–1834
Steven King

3 Negotiating medical welfare Introduction On an unspecified date the overseer of Pangbourne (Berkshire) received a hand-delivered letter from Olive Barber. She wrote: these lines to say that I took it very hard and unkind as you would not send us so much as a shilling yesterday as we are greatly destresed or else believe me we would not trouble you but my husband has been very ill since He came home and is legs are very bad at this time his oblidged to keep hisself as still as he can or his legs swells and are in so much pain or else he would have come to you

in Sickness, medical welfare and the English poor, 1750–1834
Open Access (free)
Tony Fitzpatrick

rather than information per se, but the aim is to construct an approach that resists these kind of priorities. Some expect biotechnology to supplant the petrochemical and nuclear industries as the industry of the twenty-first century (Rifkin, 1998). If so, then before we can begin to yield the benefits of this technology we must prepare to avoid the accompanying dangers. Yet what are those dangers? For welfare egalitarians, the key danger is that the biological reductionism which often seems to be driving the technology shifts attention away from social explanations of

in After the new social democracy
Abstract only
Barbara Hately-Broad

the region of 2.5 million wives separated from their husbands by the exigencies of military service.1 Given these numbers, it is perhaps surprising how little attention historians have given to this aspect of the social history of the war. While historians and social scientists have examined social change in the twentieth century and the possible role of total war in this process, these analyses have never dealt with the impact of militarisation on British society.2 Even social histories of the welfare state, although dealing with at least one issue that

in War and welfare
Debates on postwar service allowances
Barbara Hately-Broad

problems of maintaining the requisite levels of recruitment were regarded as less severe.5 Sir John Grigg at the War Office, writing to Sir John Anderson, Chancellor of the Exchequer, in February 1945, felt it unlikely that either of these services would ‘find it difficult to fill their postwar complements’.6 The necessity to maintain a high military profile had not only political but also economic implications. In August 1945 John Maynard Keynes warned that the country faced ‘a financial Dunkirk’.7 In addition to financing the new welfare state, the Labour government

in War and welfare