This book provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the five main parties of the extreme right in the Netherlands (Centrumdemocraten, Centrumpartij), Belgium (Vlaams Blok), and Germany (Die Republikaner, Deutsche Volksunion). Using primary research — including internal party documents — it concludes that rather than right-wing and extremist, the core ideology of these parties is xenophobic nationalist, including also a mix of law and order and welfare chauvinism. The author's research and conclusions have broader implications for the study of the extreme-right phenomenon and party ideology in general.
Brief presentation of political parties in terms of ideology
the Far Right in the Balkans – can we identify a single
common ideological core for Far Right parties and, if so, is it identical with
that in WE? Does the ideology of the Far Right party family in the Balkans
contain any specific features? The primary aim of this chapter is to analyse
those parties which are supposedly on the Far Right of the political spectrum
and explore their ideological core, focusing on nationalism, xenophobia, law
and order and welfarechauvinism. Due to the peculiarities of the Balkan
region, additional specifics and regional idiosyncrasies
confusion we have noted also leads to conceptual uncertainty. As Mudde points out, in twenty-six definitions of Right-wing extremism
in the literature, no less than fifty-eight different features are mentioned at least
once. Characteristics appearing in one form or another include nationalism,
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MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 01/16/2014, SPi
terminology and conceptualization
xenophobia, law and order, welfarechauvinism, racism, anti-Semitism, external exclusivity, internal homogenization, traditional values, westernophobia
this might be the result of the
fact that the party considers unification undesirable in the short term, given
that the party believes that the (Northern) Netherlands is currently undergoing a process of left-wing decay.
Summary table of ideological features per partya
Law and order
Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.
social planning in
the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries might not at first
glance appear to have many contemporary resonances. Yet debates over
how countries best provide for the social, educational, and health
needs of their populations, and who is to be counted as entitled to
such provision, are a conspicuous feature of many democracies in the
twenty-first century. Across Europe and in the post-Brexit United
Kingdom, ‘welfarechauvinism’ has blended increasing
distrust of free movement of
more than a hundred years earlier.
The Far Right in the Western Balkan region demonstrates features dangerous
for democracy – striving after monoethnic countries with expanded borders as
well as xenophobia aimed at local ethnicities.
What is the state of the Far Right party family in the Balkans then? Our
main findings are as follows:
1. The ideological core of the Far Right in the Balkans is identical to
that of Western Europe (WE).
The main core of the ideology of the Far Right Balkan parties is composed of nationalism, xenophobia and law and order, while welfare
, Critical Criminological Perspectives. Cham: Springer
International Publishing, pp. 139–62.
Canning, V. (2019). Supporting Sanctuary: Addressing Harms in the British, Danish
and Swedish Asylum Systems. Calverts Co-operative.
Careja, R., Elmelund-Præstekær, C., Klitgaard, M. and Larsen, E. (2016). ‘Direct
and Indirect WelfareChauvinism as Party Strategies: An Analysis of the Danish
People’s Party’. Scandinavian Political Studies 39(4), pp. 435–57.
Chauvin, S. and Garcés-Mascareñas, B. (2012). ‘Beyond Informal Citizenship: The
New Moral Economy of Migrant Illegality
– as listed primarily in the sections on economy
(III), employment (V), social policy (X) and taxes (XI) – show any coherence, it is in their welfarechauvinism. The rest is an ambiguous mix of
social and liberal policies, ranging from rejection of ‘forced privatisation’
(CD 1989: III.1) and support for raising pension benefits (CD 1989: X.8)
to calling for less (complicated) taxes (CD 1989: XI.1 and 3). The only
substantive adjustments to the generally supported mixed economic
system of the Netherlands (CD 1989: III.1) the CD seems to want is the
35 Hugo Garrido and Marta Ley ( 2019 ) ‘El voto de clase sigue existiendo: a menos renta, más votos para el PSOE’. Available at: www.elmundo.es/espana/2019/09/23/5d7bd6cafc6c83707e8b45b4.html . Accessed 17 May 2020.
36 Willem De Koster , Peter Achterberg and Jeroen Van der Waal ( 2013 ) ‘ The New Right and the Welfare State: The Electoral Relevance of WelfareChauvinism and Welfare Populism in the Netherlands ’, International Political Science Review , 34 : 1 , 3–20 .
37 Thomas Prosser ( 2020 ) ‘ Budget 2020: Why the Conservatives are