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Parties of the extreme Right have experienced a dramatic rise in electoral support in many countries in Western Europe over the last two and a half decades. This phenomenon has been far from uniform, however, and the considerable attention that the more successful right-wing extremist parties have received has sometimes obscured the fact that these parties have not recorded high electoral results in all West European democracies. Furthermore, their electoral scores have also varied over time, with the same party recording low electoral scores in one election but securing high electoral scores in another. This book examines the reasons behind the variation in the electoral fortunes of the West European parties of the extreme right in the period since the late 1970s. It proposes a number of different explanations as to why certain parties of the extreme right have performed better than others at the polls and it investigates each of these different explanations systematically and in depth.

One of the key aims of this book is to offer a synthesis of the main findings of current research on age. It is intended as an outline survey and consequently the scope of the book is deliberately broad: it covers two centuries, considers the large land mass of Western Europe with its diverse languages, customs and cultures, and ranges across the social spectrum. The book focuses solely on the Christian West, including consideration on the extent to which social rank influenced life expectancy, the methods and goals of upbringing, marriage patterns and funerary memorialisation. The book also demonstrates how extensive that range can be. Examples are drawn from manorial accounts, tax assessments, spiritual writings, didactic literature, romances, elegies, art and architecture. The main thrust is that age formed an essential part of a person's identity in late medieval Europe. During adolescence, men and women progressively took on their adult roles. Three chapters are devoted to educating girls. The book discusses young people's period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It draws attention to pious young women who fought against marriage and wanted a chaste life. Divergences between northern and southern Europe in terms of marriage patterns, family formation, opportunities for women and attitudes towards death and its rituals are discussed. The book shows that attitudes towards the undeveloped young meant that children had few legal responsibilities. Another aim of the book is to consider the changing opportunities and possibilities for people as they progressed through life.

As European politics, society, economy and religion underwent epoch-making changes between 1400 and 1600, the treatment of Europe's Jews by the non-Jewish majority was, then as in later periods, a symptom of social problems and tensions in the Continent as a whole. This book discusses the history and background of the Jewish presence in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe. As far as the late medieval Church was concerned, the basis for the treatment of Jews, by ecclesiastical and secular authorities, was to be found in the decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council of the Roman Church, which were issued in 1215. The book is concerned with Jewish economic activities for their own sake, and Jews' financial relations with Christian rulers. It then concentrates on other aspects of the dealings which went on between European Jews and their Christian neighbours. The book includes the Jews' own economic presence and culture, social relations between Jews and Christians, the policies and actions of Christian authorities in Church and State. It draws upon original source material to convey ordinary people's prejudices about Jews, including myths about Jewish 'devilishness', money-grabbing, and 'ritual murder' of Christian children. Finally, the book demonstrates from the outset that much of the treatment of European Jews, in the period up to the Reformation and thereafter, was to be a practical result of the controversies within 'Christendom' on the subject of authority, whether ecclesiastical or secular.

A ROUND the year 1000, the Latin Church in many ways defined western Europe. Through a string of chapels, churches, monasteries and clergy extending from Ireland into eastern Europe and beyond the Elbe and Saale Rivers, from the Scandinavian countries to the northern Iberian peninsula, and especially in the European heartlands of Italy, France and the German Empire, the Latin Church was beginning physically to dominate the landscape of western Europe. It also began the immense task of trying to reshape the thought patterns of its many peoples. Led by the

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century

periodically lent their support to the minority bourgeois governments. 2 The extreme right in Western Europe The considerable attention that these more successful right-wing extremist parties have received both in the media and in the academic literature has sometimes obscured the fact that parties of the extreme right have not been successful at the polls in all West European countries, however. Indeed, looking at Table 1.1, which documents the electoral scores of all the parties of the extreme right in Western Europe in the period since the late 1970s, it is clear that

in The extreme right in Western Europe

6 Accounting for varying electoral fortunes Over the course of the last four chapters, this book has proposed, examined and tested four separate sets of political explanations for why the parties of the extreme right in Western Europe have recorded such divergent electoral scores in the period 1979–2003. Throughout this analysis, the fact that these separate explanations do not exist independently of each other has been kept firmly in mind, and each chapter has warned of the dangers of drawing conclusions about the power of each set of explanations when they are

in The extreme right in Western Europe
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fortunes at the polls. Rather than there being a uniform right-wing extremist ideology, the ideas and policies of the different parties vary quite considerably, with some of these being more popular with the electorate than others. Consequently, it is quite possible that the variation in the electoral success of the parties of the extreme right across Western Europe may be partly explained by the presence of different ideologies, with the more successful right-wing extremist parties embracing one type of ideology and the less successful ones adopting another. The chapter

in The extreme right in Western Europe

the West European parties of the extreme right and seeks to assess how organization and leadership impact on the parties’ ability to win votes come election time. In exploring the influence of these factors on the electoral fortunes of the parties of the extreme right, the chapter investigates the extent to which party organization may help account for why the right-wing extremist parties in Western Europe have experienced such diverging levels of electoral success since the late 1970s. The chapter begins by explaining the ways in which organization and leadership

in The extreme right in Western Europe

There are two main aspects of the involvement of Jews in the European economy of the late medieval and early modern periods which have to be considered here. In all western European countries with Jewish populations in this period, there were restrictions on the economic roles which Jews might fulfil. These were justified on theological as much as economic

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600

history of Jewish residence in a variety of western European countries, it was inevitable that Jews would acquire a wide range of linguistic skills. Nonetheless, it is undeniable that there was a tendency for Jewish communities to take on the cultural characteristics of the countries in which they lived. This was particularly true of the Iberian [Spanish and Portuguese, or

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600