Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 361 items for :

  • "western front" x
  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All
Photography, practices and experiences in First World War France
Author: Beatriz Pichel

How did photography articulate individual and collective experiences of the war? This question situates photography at the centre of historical analysis, contending that what we do with photographs (taking, collecting, classifying, exhibiting, looking at and posing for them) shapes how we make sense of what we live through. Picturing the Western Front offers an innovative analysis of the ways in which the practice of photography shaped combatants’ and civilians’ war experiences between 1914 and 1918. Despite military restrictions, photographs were everywhere: the war archives classified thousands of pictures, combatants compiled their own photographic albums and civilians learnt about war developments through the images published in heavily illustrated journals. The study of the material produced by the French military photographic service Section photographique de l’armée, amateur photographers and illustrated magazines such as Sur le Vif reveals that photography mattered not only because of what it showed, but also because of the practices it entailed. Photography recorded events that were then kept in archives and collections, shaping the future histories of the war; shaped affective relationships with others and helped to domesticate the inhospitable environment of the trenches; gave a visual and material body to abstract ideas such as the legal distinction ‘Mort pour la France’ (dead for France); placed people and events in particular landscapes (physical and metaphorical) and made some war events visible while making others, such as suicide, invisible. Photographic practices became, thus, frames of experience: a framework that turned the raw flow of life events into experiences.

German civilian and combatant internees during the First World War
Author: Panikos Panayi

This book recognizes three types of internees in First World War Britain. They are: civilians already present in the country in August 1914; civilians brought to Britain from all over the world; and combatants, primarily soldiers from the western front. Soldiers from the western front included naval personnel and a few members of zeppelin crews whose vessels fell to earth. These three groups faced different internment experiences, particularly in terms of the length of time they spent behind barbed wire and their ability to work. Many combatants viewed internment almost as a relief from the fighting they had experienced on the western front, while, for civilians, the spell behind barbed wire represented their key wartime experience. Throughout the narrative, from the first days behind barbed wire until the last, the book recognizes the varying experiences faced by the differing groups of prisoners. Nevertheless, one needs to consider all internees together because they became victims of one of the first mass incarcerations in history. While the prisoner of war has a long history, imprisonment on the scale practised in the First World War, by both Britain and the other belligerent states, of both soldiers and civilians, represents a new phenomenon.

Nathan Wolski

This chapter examines the relationship between the two key terms, frontier and resistance. It also examines the interdependence of these terms and explores some of the consequences while deconstructing these structuring concepts. The 1980s and 1990s saw some extraordinary progress in the field of Aboriginal history. The frontier was not that space in which European men confronted the naked land, but was the space in which Europeans confronted Aboriginal peoples across the field of battle. Aboriginal culture and Aboriginal people were to disappear, either by 'natural' death, by murder, or by abandoning their own culture. The chapter considers how the new conceptions of resistance force a rethinking of traditional ideas on frontiers, and argues that approaching frontiers as spatially and chronologically circumscribed units is no longer tenable.

in Colonial frontiers
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

to encompassing all people fleeing persecution and seeking safety. With a lack of centralized monitoring or consistent criteria to define refugees, estimates remain difficult to determine with formal accuracy, but as many as ten million people were displaced during the Great War ( Gatrell, 2014 ). Along the Western Front, Belgians moved by the hundreds of thousands across into the Netherlands, France and over to England. By 1918, as the Germans advanced into France, the numbers of refugees in that country rose to a height of 1.85 million ( Gatrell, 2014

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Bowman

2471Ch4 6/2/03 12:05 pm Page 100 4 Adjusting and adapting The period from July 1915 to September 1916 saw the peak of Irish involvement on the Western Front, with the arrival of the 16th (Irish) and 36th (Ulster) Divisions in that theatre and also saw a significant contribution of Irish troops, both regulars and members of the 10th (Irish) Division, to the British forces in the Eastern Mediterranean. This period saw a number of disciplinary problems occurring in Irish units. Some regular units, which had reformed on a number of occasions, witnessed

in The Irish regiments in the Great War
Christine E. Hallett

published – book, Diary of a Nursing Sister on the Western Front.18 The absence of this posting in the official record is an indication of the chaos of the war’s opening months. At this time the front was moving rapidly and unpredictably, and forces were experiencing bloody battles at the River Marne and at Mons, before the so-called ‘race to the 102 In France with the British Expeditionary Force sea’. Eventually, a system of entrenchments stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss border, which came to be known as the ‘Western Front’, would form. In its earliest phase

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Chris Pearson

4 The ‘mangled earth’ of the trenches1 (1914–18) Four years of trench warfare between 1914 and 1918 transformed farmland and forests in northern and eastern France into muddy, cratered, and toxic places. The scale and extent of the militarized environment of the Western Front was unprecedented, and the changes that it brought to the environment fascinated and appalled observers. Mark Plowman, a British infantry officer who later resigned his commission on grounds of conscience, presented an apocalyptic view of the Somme trench environment, which had ‘lost its

in Mobilizing nature
The War Books Boom, 1928–1930
Andrew Frayn

it did not set the standard. This was done by the German All Quiet on the Western Front.’16 The novelty of nothing new While the ten-year distance from the war should not be conceived as a gap, it was a significant milestone. Erich Maria Remarque’s Im Westen Nichts Neues, perhaps the most famous First World War novel, was first serialised in the original German on the tenth anniversary of the Armistice and was a major success.17 Eschatological and sometimes merely scatological, Remarque’s novel was attacked by the German political left for not going far enough, and

in Writing disenchantment
Nursing the victims of gas poisoning in the First World War
Christine E. Hallett

-winning scientists and strategists.6 As chemical weapons became increasingly sophisticated, the means for protecting those exposed barely kept pace. The result was that casualty clearing stations (CCSs) on the Western Front found themselves inundated with large numbers of severely damaged men, who arrived en masse in what were referred to as ‘rushes’.7 As these small field hospitals struggled to cope, they moved large numbers of still-critical casualties onto hospital trains and barges and, hence, ‘down the line’ to base hospitals on the coast of Northern France, which, in their

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
The Armistice, the silence and Ford Madox Ford’s Parade’s End
John Pegum

letters, spent much of the decade following the end of the war considering the Armistice, its impact and its opportunities. Having been invalided from the Western Front in 1917 and then v 18 v The silence and Ford’s Parade’s End employed as an able administrator in Britain, Ford Madox Ford was at his regimental depot in Redcar, North Yorkshire, when the Armistice was declared. His Armistice Day was somewhat unusual for a soldier fortunate enough to find himself in a land untouched by the ravages of war. Rather than joining enthusiastically in the revels, Ford seems to

in The silent morning