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Placing the Irish and Scots in Colonial Australia

This book takes two of the most influential minority groups of white settlers in the British Empire—the Irish and the Scots—and explores how they imagined themselves within the landscapes of its farthest reaches, the Australian colonies of Victoria and New South Wales. Using letters and diaries as well as records of collective activities such as committee meetings, parades and dinners, it examines how the Irish and Scots built new identities as settlers in the unknown spaces of Empire. Utilizing critical geographical theories of ‘place’ as the site of memory and agency, the book considers how Irish and Scots settlers grounded their sense of belonging in the imagined landscapes of south-east Australia. Emphasizing the complexity of colonial identity formation and the ways in which this was spatially constructed, it challenges conventional understandings of the Irish and Scottish presence in Australia. The opening chapters locate the book's themes and perspectives within a survey of the existing historical and geographical literature on empire and diaspora. These pay particular attention to the ‘new’ imperial history and to alternative transnational and ‘located’ understandings of diasporic consciousness. Subsequent chapters work within these frames and examine the constructions of place evinced by Irish and Scottish emigrants during the outward voyage and subsequent processes of pastoral and urban settlement, and in religious observance.

Open Access (free)
Better ‘the Hottentot at the hustings’ than ‘the Hottentot in the wilds with his gun on his shoulder’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

Gcaleka Xhosa and the Thembu were left in nominal independence. This did not, however, last long: in the 1880s, their territories were annexed to the Cape Colony; and when Pondoland was annexed, in the 1890s, all of the lands of the Xhosa-speaking peoples had been swallowed up by the Cape Colony. However, though the White settlers had gained control of most of the Xhosa’s land, the Xhosa people did not

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Neil Parsons

penetrating Khoe and Xhosa territories on the eastern frontier. From the 1820s to the 1830s, English settlers in the Eastern Cape pushed Boer settlers northwards on a groot trek (long haul) across the Orange River. In 1852 and 1872, the ‘imperial factor’ ceded legislative representation and executive responsibility in Cape Colony to a largely white settler franchise. African kingdoms

in Mistress of everything
Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

Species (1859) scholars in a wide variety of disciplines drew analogies between the stages of development evident in the natural world, governed by the ‘survival of the fittest’, and human society. In the white settler states of the United States, Canada, Latin America, Australia and New Zealand, settlers pushed aside the indigenous population, frequently asserting that the land they found was empty or unused. 3 The following inscription from a memorial plaque, dedicated to a Cornish farming family on Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, illustrates this popular belief

in The houses of history
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Indigenous dispossession in British history and history writing
Zoë Laidlaw

the welfare of all classes’ that characterised the imperial government.20 For colonies in this category, Grey explicitly opposed self-government. Even in New Zealand, where the settler population was rapidly growing but still outnumbered by the native, Grey worried that British withdrawal would precipitate ‘a series of contests’ between colonisers and colonised in which, ultimately, the Maori ‘would … be destroyed’.21 Grey’s second category comprised colonies where white settlers predominated. Here, he conceded the ‘obvious duty and interest’ of Britain ‘to extend

in Emancipation and the remaking of the British imperial world
Class, gender and the licensing of transgression
Will Jackson

the colony’s new white settlers were not rich that they were apprehensive of social and economic change. 124 Among many of the new immigrants to Kenya, Michael Blundell recalled, were people who could not adjust themselves to the ‘social revolution’ of 1945. ‘Naturally inflexible in their outlook and highly conservative,’ Blundell writes, ‘they brought to our political scene an almost fascist

in Madness and marginality
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David Killingray

part of Empire of greatest significance was North Africa, with its white settlers (1.45 million in 1911), exports of grain, wine and minerals, and strategic naval bases, and the notion that Algeria was France. French naval strategy focused on defence of the trans-Mediterranean supply routes. In the inter-war years, France’s naval power was weakened by Mussolini’s belligerent

in Guardians of empire
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British emigration and the construction of Anglo-Canadian privilege
Lisa Chilton

mechanisms and structures that would make such privileges possible? In this chapter, these questions serve as a starting point for a larger discussion of the concepts of Britishness, white settler society hegemony, and British superiority in pre-Second World War Canada. This discussion consists of two interconnected sections. The first section asserts that it was possible for these sorts of attitudes of

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
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Peter Hobbins

typifying the colonial antipodes comprised an unstable conjunction of people, animals, environments, technologies and circumstances, providing a rich source for animal-focused histories. 26 As detailed in Chapter 1 , abrupt shifts in economic, ethical or affective valuations of animals threw into relief prevailing attitudes and practices. This chapter establishes the concept of the colonial animal matrix, elaborating how white

in Venomous encounters
Open Access (free)
Katie Pickles

democracy and citizenship away from those of Britain and towards those of North America. For many Canadians, the British Commonwealth itself is no longer important. Canadian identity is now located in Canadian space, with conquest, progress, modernization and the assimilation of all difference no longer considered unquestioned objectives. ‘White settler society’ now appears to be a limited descriptor, one

in Female imperialism and national identity