Towards a non-recuperative history
Jane Haggis

article, Chilla Bulbeck encapsulates the tensions currently felt by many feminist historians working in the specialism of gender and imperialism, particularly those who focus on uncovering and understanding the presences and participations of white women in imperial contexts and colonial locations. A number of studies have convincingly challenged the caricature of the white woman as

in Gender and imperialism
Claire Lowrie

and young Aboriginal women of mixed descent came to predominate in service. The arrival of white women and the coinciding decline of male servants was part of a pattern in many tropical colonies in this period. This has led historians to suggest that the arrival of increasing numbers of white women in the colonies resulted in the feminisation of domestic service in the tropics. In Malaya, Singapore

in Masters and servants
Editor: Clare Midgley

Gender history is more than the recovery of women's pasts and inclusion of female experiences into history. This book brings together two traditionally separate areas of historical literature: writings on women and gender on the one hand, and scholarship on British imperialism and colonialism on the other. It marks an important new intervention into a vibrant area of scholarship, creating a dialogue between the histories of imperialism and of women and gender. By engaging critically with both traditional British imperial history and colonial discourse analysis, the book demonstrates how feminist historians can play a central role in creating new histories of British imperialism. The first part of the book offers new perspectives on the nature of British imperial power through exploring the gender dimensions of the imposition of British control. It discusses study of the age of consent, body of scholarship, and British women missionaries in India. The second part talks about the gender dimensions of a spectrum of reactions to British imperialism. The focus is on colonising women and the colonized women. The third part switches from colonial contexts to explore the impact of imperialism within Britain itself. It presents both the anti-slavery discourse constructed by women anti-slavery campaigners and the 'triple discourse' of anti-slavery in early feminist tracts of 1790 to 1869 as marking key roots of the 'imperial feminism'. Finally, the inter-war period is explored focusing on the under-researched area of white women's involvement in imperial politics and race issues.

Liverpool’s inconvenient imperial past

Liverpool occupies a prominent position in the contemporary popular imagination. In spite of decades of economic decline, urban decay and a name associated by some with poverty and crime, the city's reputation is by no means a negative one. The book is a collection of essays that focuses on the strength of Liverpool's merchant marine, representing both informal and formal empire over centuries. It discusses the interracial relationships in 1950s and 1960s Liverpool to demonstrate that many African and Afro-Caribbean sailors (and others) married or had relationships with white women. Given existing deficiencies in the historiographies of both Liverpool and the British Empire, the book aims to reassess both Liverpool's role within the British imperial system and the impact on the port city of its colonial connections. Liverpool's success has often been attributed to, and marred by, its being the leader in the slave trade after 1750. Napoleonic Wars were a period of great turbulence and difficulty for the Liverpool commercial community. Liverpool is perceived as a diasporic city, however, its ambiguous nineteenth-century identity reflected the tensions of its complex migrant connections. An analysis of Liverpool's business connections with South America reveals its relative commercial decline and the notion of 'gentlemanly capitalism'. The African ethnology collection of National Museums Liverpool's (NML) ethnology collections are displayed in the 'World Cultures' gallery of the World Museum Liverpool, which opened in 2005. Liverpool is perhaps not exceptional, though its networks are notable and striking.

White women and colonialism in Barbados and North Carolina, 1627–1865
Author: Cecily Jones

Whiteness, as a lived experience, is both gendered and racialised. This book seeks to understand the overlapping imbrication of whiteness in shaping the diverse material realities of women of European origin. The analysis pertains to the English-speaking slave-based societies of the Caribbean island of Barbados, and North Carolina in the American South. The book represents a comparative analysis of the complex interweaving of race, gender, social class and sexuality in defining the contours of white women's lives during the era of slavery. Despite their gendered subordination, their social location within the dominant white group afforded all white women a range of privileges, shaping these women's social identities and material realities. Conscious of the imperative to secure the racial loyalty of poor whites in order to assure its own security in the event of black uprisings, elite society attempted to harness the physical resources of the poor whites. The alienation of married women from property rights was rooted in and reinforced by the prevailing ideology of female economic dependence on men. White Barbadian women's proprietary rights as slave-owners were upheld in the law courts, even the poorest slaveholding white women could take recourse to the law to protect their property. White women's access to property was determined primarily by their marital status. The book reveals the strategies deployed by elite and poor white women in these societies to resist their gendered subordination, challenge the constraints that restricted their lives to the private domestic sphere, secure independent livelihoods and create meaningful existences.

Abstract only
Cecily Jones

This study represents a socio-historical analysis of the intersections of gender, race and class in the slave-based plantation societies of Barbados and North Carolina. Specifically, it brings to the fore the material experiences of white women who inhabited these worlds, and attempts to generate greater understanding of their complex integration within the colonial slave economies. The white women who

in Engendering whiteness
Barbadian women and slaveholding
Cecily Jones

, evident in her directive that Eleanor provide Kate with an annuity of £6, and a secure dwelling house. I am suggesting, however, that another interpretation of the last will and testament of this white Barbadian widow will open up critical spaces through which we might think about whiteness as a position of structural advantage, with this as just one instance of how white women were implicated within

in Engendering whiteness
Abstract only
Cecily Jones

How did the institution of African slavery penetrate and shape the social worlds of white women in the Americas? What was the place of white women within these slave-based societies? What forms of power, if any, did white women exercise? How did the nexus of gender, race and class relations structure their material existences? What strategies did white women deploy in

in Engendering whiteness
Sexuality, labour and poor white women in North Carolina
Cecily Jones

body’. She had fallen pregnant, but Will had threatened to poison her if she publicly revealed his paternity of the child, even went so far as threatening to force his sexual attentions on Sarah’s sister, and boasting of previous sexual conquests of ‘the best of [white] women’. 2 Were Sarah’s accusations against Will a desperate attempt to cover up her own complicity in an illicit sexual

in Engendering whiteness
Domestic tension and political antagonism in the home, 1910s–1930s
Claire Lowrie

Australian women who began making their homes in Singapore and Darwin in this period, had expected to be aided in the task by loyal Chinese ‘boys’. Instead, they encountered Chinese men whom they claimed refused to follow instruction. For the white women of Singapore and Darwin this was not merely an inconvenience but called into question the legitimacy of their place in the colonial venture. 2 In

in Masters and servants