This book explores colonial gendered interactions, with a special focus on the white woman in colonial India. It examines missionary and memsahibs' colonial writings, probing their construction of Indian women of different classes and regions, such as zenana women, peasants, ayahs and wet-nurses. The three groups of white women focused upon are memsahibs, missionaries and, to a certain extent, ordinary soldiers' wives. Among white women in colonial India, it was the female missionaries who undoubtedly participated most closely in the colonial 'civilising mission'. The book addresses through a scrutiny of the literary works written by 'New Indian Women', such as Flora Annie Steel. Cross-racial gendered interactions were inflected by regional diversities, and the complexity of the category of the 'native woman'. The colonial household was a site of tension, and 'the anxieties of colonial rule manifest themselves most clearly in the home'. The dynamics of the memsahib-ayah relationship were rooted in race/class hierarchies, domestic power structures and predicated on the superiority of the colonising memsahib. The book also examines colonial medical texts, scrutinising how they wielded authoritative power over vulnerable young European women through the power/knowledge of their medical directives. Colonial discourse sought to project the white woman's vulnerability to specific mental health problems, as well as the problem of addiction of 'barrack wives'. Giving voice to the Indian woman, the book scrutinises the fiction of the first generation of western-educated Indian women who wrote in English, exploring their construction of white women and their negotiations with colonial modernities.
European women’s mental health and addiction in the late nineteenth century
Colonial discourse, including colonial medical writings, sought to project the white woman's vulnerability to specific mental health problems. This chapter explores some aspects of European female mental disorder in colonial India, with a focus on neurasthenia. It examines some of the medical approaches to female mental health in nineteenth-century Britain, in order to situate the contemporary gendering of madness in the metropole. The chapter also examines the issue of gendered mental health problems, exploring their perceived linkages with diverse factors such as hot climates, cultural alienation, loneliness and a hectic social life. It explores the condition called 'delirium tremens' among barrack wives which was related to alcohol addiction and could be life-threatening. The chapter concludes with a brief examination of the histories of a few white soldiers' wives, who were admitted to lunatic asylums in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.