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Middle-class men on the English Home Front, 1914–18
Author: Laura Ugolini

Historians of the First World War often seem to have a very clear idea of who middle-class men were and how they reacted to the outbreak of the conflict. This book explores the experiences of middle-class men on the English home front during the First World War. It first focuses on the first twelve months or so of war, a period when many middle-class men assumed that the war could hardly fail to affect them. The book then delves deeper into middle-class men's understandings of civilians' appropriate behaviour in wartime. It explores middle-class men's reasons for not conforming to dominant norms of manly conduct by enlisting, and considers individuals' experiences of 'non-enlistment'. It also focuses on middle-class men's involvement in volunteer activities on the home front. The book also focuses on middle-class men's working lives, paying particular attention to those aspects of work that were most affected by the war. It considers civilian men's responses to the new ambivalence towards profit-making, as well as to the doubts cast on the 'value' of much middle-class, whitecollar work in wartime. The book further assesses the ways in which middle-class men negotiated their roles as wartime consumers and explores the impact of war on middle-class relationships. It considers the nature of wartime links between civilians and servicemen, as well as the role of the paterfamilias within the middle-class family, before turning to focus on the relationship between civilian fathers and combatant sons.

Caitriona Clear

numbers of people employed in professional and white-collar work, in local government and civil service work, in commercial and distributive work, in transport and communications, and in some kinds of industrial work, despite the fact that the population in 1911 was only two-thirds of what it had been in 1851 (see table A3, Appendix). While Ireland did not have countrywide factory employment it did exhibit other signs of a modern industrial economy – a well-developed transport system and a thriving commercial and financial sector. The number and variety of retail

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Women’s work in the Civil Service and the London County Council, 1900–55
Author: Helen Glew

Collectively, the Civil Service and the London County Council (LCC) employed tens of thousands of women in Britain in the early twentieth century. As public employers, these institutions remained influential for each other and for private employers more widely as a benchmark for the conditions of women’s white-collar work. This book examines three key aspects of women’s public service employment: inequality of pay, the marriage bar and inequality of opportunity. In so doing, it delineates the levels of regulation and rhetoric surrounding women’s employment and the extent to which notions about femininity and womanhood shaped employment policies and, ultimately, women’s experiences in the workplace. Drawing on a wide range of archival sources, including policy documents, trade union records, women’s movement campaign literature and employees’ personal testimony, this is the first book-length study of women’s public service employment in the first half of the twentieth century. It is also a new lens through which to examine the women’s movement in this period and a contribution to the debate about the effect of the First World War on women’s employment. Scholars and students with interests in gender, British social and cultural history and labour history will find this an invaluable text.

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Helen Boak

their liberal outlook before the First World War. Less academic young women also had a greater range of employment opportunities. Article 145 of the Constitution introduced compulsory education until the age of eighteen, improving women’s vocational training. They could reject work in domestic service and agriculture, the two most exploitative, least regulated areas of employment, and enter paid employment as manual workers in industry or white-collar workers in the expanding retail and administrative sectors. Although manual and white-collar work may have been

in Women in the Weimar Republic
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Helen Boak

take up manual work in industry and, increasingly, white-collar work in the rapidly expanding service and administration sectors, where working hours were fixed, working conditions regulated, the remuneration higher and, save for the period of the First World War, worker protection laws enforced. From the turn of the century, white-collar work was the fastest growing sector for female employment. These trends continued; by 1980 white-collar workers made up 51.9 per cent of West Germany’s female workforce, while agriculture provided employment for only 7 per cent of

in Women in the Weimar Republic
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Activism, feminism and the rise of the female office worker during the First World War and its immediate aftermath
Nicole Robertson

understandable. This is all the more so given that in Britain the lower middle class has been considered particularly weak, compared with the greater cohesion of the group in, for example, France and Germany. This has in part been attributed to particular patterns of women’s employment in white-collar work.11 This  6 Arthur Marsh and Victoria Ryan, The Clerks: A History of Apex 1890–1989 (Oxford: Malthouse Publishing, 1997), p. 22.  7 AWCS, Rulebook, 1916.  8 Arthur Marsh and Victoria Ryan, Historical Directory of Trade Unions, Volume 1: Non- manual Union (Farnborough

in Labour and working-class lives
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Override dysfunctions and the ‘Klapheck computer’
Abigail Susik

culture of pleasure and passionate attraction. 10 Aligning Klapheck with Domínguez’s poetic subversions of white-collar work tools such as the typewriter, as well as lessons from Fourier and Marcuse, Breton’s essay affirmed that in 1965, surrealism still aimed to reveal how human life can exceed instrumentalisation. In Klapheck’s case, this desired excess is achieved by deploying the artistic medium of a strangely abstracted figurative painting to convey messages about how the operations of power and

in Surrealist sabotage and the war on work
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American horror comics as Cold War commentary and critique

Printing Terror places horror comics of the mid-twentieth century in dialogue with the anxieties of their age. It rejects the narrative of horror comics as inherently and necessarily subversive and explores, instead, the ways in which these texts manifest white male fears over America’s changing sociological landscape. It examines two eras: the pre-CCA period of the 1940s and 1950s, and the post-CCA era to 1975. The authors examine each of these periods through the lenses of war, gender, and race, demonstrating that horror comics are centred upon white male victimhood and the monstrosity of the gendered and/or racialised other. It is of interest to scholars of horror, comics studies, and American history. It is suitably accessible to be used in undergraduate classes.

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Lucy Bland

, including the marriage bar in teaching and the civil service, new arenas of work were opening up for women – in white-collar work, in teaching and the civil service (for single women), in finance and in new light industries.32 Adrian Bingham, in his impres-­ sive Gender, Modernity and the Popular Press in Interwar Britain, presents a more nuanced picture of press depiction than that given by Melman. He points to how many of the popular newspapers carried articles celebrat-­ ing sportswomen, and encouraging women to be ‘modern’ and careerminded.33 Bingham is certainly

in Modern women on trial
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Caitriona Clear

priesthood (though there was no compulsion on them to do this). Cheaper or not, of St Jarlath’s boys’ parents in 1887–91 only two were artisans, the rest being farmers, shopkeepers and landowners, with a smattering of professionals and white-collar workers. The introduction of ‘County Scholarships’ by the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction in 1899 made this level of education more accessible to a wider range of people.20 The Christian Brothers’ and Presentation Brothers’ free secondary schools for boys opened up white-collar work, the much

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922