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Deborah Wilson

M1524 - WILSON TEXT.qxp:Graham Q7 25/9/08 12:18 Page 154 6 Widows and property Widows were discernably marginalised from family property at this time. Throughout the period, all women in the families in this study received jointure in place of dower, which in most cases was significantly less than the widow would have received as dower. Widows also had no rights to their husbands’ personal property, which tended to be treated as an extension of estate property and bequeathed as such to the heir. Family practices, such as the use of trustees, further

in Women, marriage and property in wealthy landed families in Ireland, 1750–1850
Brian Baker

Downriver , Sinclair deliberately complicates any sense that he might stand outside the structures he satirises; he is already, unavoidably complicit with capital and with exploitation. The widow The subtitle of Downriver is ‘The Vessels of Wrath’. The novel is, in itself, such a vessel. The satire or ‘savage comedy’ in the novel is in the service of an angry critique of the policies of Margaret Thatcher, and a grotesque caricature of the then prime minister as ‘the Widow’, a monstrous tyrant. I will return more

in Iain Sinclair
The marriage bar in public servants’ private lives until 1946
Helen Glew

7 Disabled husbands, deserted wives, working ­widows: the marriage bar in public servants’ ­private lives until 1946 W hilst the last chapter sought to examine the socio-political context of the marriage bar and employers’ rationalisations for largely keeping it in place in peacetime, this chapter examines the marriage bar in relation to women undergoing marital breakdown, or facing economic difficulties because their husbands were unable to work. In so doing, it reveals the way in which the marriage bar as an institutional ideal was unsustainable and

in Gender, rhetoric and regulation
The making of ‘Mrs Pace’
John Carter Wood

4 ‘Easing the burden of the tragic widow’: the making of ‘Mrs Pace’ The most remarkable woman in England The making of ‘Mrs Pace’ From the beginning, the Pace case was more than simply a legal (or local) matter. Up to the inquest verdict, most of its key events took place within a few miles of Rose Cottage yet were followed throughout Britain and beyond. Press coverage created a figure known to millions of newspaper readers: ‘Mrs Pace’. The inquest verdict charging her with murder made her not only a more sensational but also a more complex figure. Women went

in ‘The most remarkable woman in England’
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Mortality, medical care and military welfare in the British Civil Wars

Historians of the British Civil Wars are increasingly taking notice of these bloody conflicts as a critical event in the welfare history of Europe. This volume will examine the human costs of the conflict and the ways in which they left lasting physical and mental scars after the cessation of armed hostilities. Its essays examine the effectiveness of medical care and the capacity of the British peoples to endure these traumatic events. During these wars, the Long Parliament’s concern for the ‘commonweal’ led to centralised care for those who had suffered ‘in the State’s service’, including improved medical treatment, permanent military hospitals, and a national pension scheme, that for the first time included widows and orphans. This signified a novel acceptance of the State’s duty of care to its servicemen and their families. These essays explore these developments from a variety of new angles, drawing upon the insights shared at the inaugural conference of the National Civil War Centre in August 2015. This book reaches out to new audiences for military history, broadening its remit and extending its methodological reach.

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Spinsters, lesbians and widows in British women’s fiction, 1850s–1930s
Author: Emma Liggins

Women outside marriage between 1850 and the Second World War were seen as abnormal, threatening, superfluous and incomplete, whilst also being hailed as ‘women of the future’. Before 1850 odd women were marginalised, minor characters, yet by the 1930s spinsters, lesbians and widows had become heroines. This book considers how Victorian and modernist women's writing challenged the heterosexual plot and reconfigured conceptualisations of public and private space in order to valorise female oddity. It offers queer readings of novels and stories by women writers, from Charlotte Bronte, Elisabeth Gaskell, Ella Hepworth Dixon and Netta Syrett to May Sinclair, Radclyffe Hall, Clemence Dane, Winifred Holtby and Virginia Woolf. This interdisciplinary study tracks diverse representations of the odd woman in fiction and autobiographical accounts in relation to the rise of feminism. It illuminates singleness in the context of the suffrage campaign, women's work, sexual inversion and birth control as well as assessing the impact of the First World War. It draws on advice literature, medical texts, feminist polemic and articles from the new women's magazines. Developing debates within queer theory about gender non-conformity, heteronormativity and relationships between women, this genealogy of the odd woman shows how new conceptualisations of female singleness and lesbianism troubled, and ultimately transformed, social norms.

Author: June Cooper

The Protestant Orphan Society became a social bridge that linked together throughout the Church of Ireland the humble poor and the wealthy and the great. This book examines the work of the Protestant Orphan Society in Dublin (DPOS) against the background of over a century of political, religious and social upheaval from Catholic emancipation, the Great Famine, social reforms to Independence. It first identifies the founders and supporters of the DPOS and their motivation for doing so. It asks why the Church of Ireland invested in the children of the church at this time. The book then analyses the Society's development, the grounds for support of private versus public poor relief for Protestant widows and children and stresses the crucial role that women played in the Societies' work. It examines the child welfare system implemented by the DPOS, and the extent to which its policies were forward thinking and child and family centred. The opposing views of the extensive social service carried out by PO Societies and the meaning of the charity for the Church of Ireland laity, particularly women, are explored. The book further examines applicant profiles, widows' reduced circumstances and health, attitudes to children's health, and bereavement and the attendant emotional effects. Using individual case histories the chapter examines applicant case histories which include Sean O'Casey's sister.

The widows and orphans of Parliament’s military commanders
Andrew Hopper

The hidden human costs Chapter 10 ‘To condole with me on the Commonwealth’s loss’: the widows and orphans of Parliament’s military commanders Andrew Hopper T he pioneering work of Geoffrey Hudson and Eric Gruber von Arni into military welfare has inspired a recent new wave of civil-war scholarship that highlights the experiences of war widows.1 So far, these studies have been either regionally based or focused on the administration of the county pension scheme to the widows of junior officers and common soldiers.2 Another study has examined how royalist

in Battle-scarred
June Cooper

bereaved families, including Irish playwright Sean O’Casey’s sister, were assisted by the Society in the twentieth century and identifies the benefits of its policy changes for widows and children. It also analyses the children’s transition from dependence to independent adulthood, evidence which serves as a barometer of the Society’s success in the twentieth century. ‘A new departure’ By the end of the nineteenth century, fifteen boards of guardians had appointed women’s committees to oversee the boarding out of workhouse children.3 The Pauper Children (Ireland) Act was

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

countesses 4 Countesses harters show that women of comital rank routinely fulfilled administrative roles at various stages in the female life cycle. The focus here is on charter evidence relating to those aristocratic women who were explicitly accorded the title comitissa, or else were married to men of comital rank, or were born into such families. Comparison with other high-ranking women is included where appropriate, in order to illustrate the central argument that women’s power was constructed through the family in their role as wife or widow, and was thus

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm