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Shetland 1800–2000
Author: Lynn Abrams

This book is about the relationship between myth-making and historical materiality. It is a singular case study of the position and experience of women in a 'peripheral' society distanced - geographically, economically and culturally - from the British mainland. The book first looks at women and gender relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries through examination of the construction of historical myth. It then looks at economic and demographic factors that underpinned the materiality of women's dominance of culture. An understanding of women's work patterns and experiences is central to any analysis of women's lives in Shetland and the gender relations contingent upon this. Shetland women were autonomous, independent workers whose day-to-day productive experiences implicated them in all sorts of social and economic relationships outside the home. The book argues that women's culture in Shetland actually had only a marginal connection to the islands' dominant economic activity - fishing. It also argues that the negligible figures for children born outside wedlock are a poor guide to understanding the moral order in nineteenth-century Shetland. Like the new visitors to Shetland, the historians of the early twenty-first century would ordinarily reach the same conclusions. They would do so, at root, because the authors are equipped with the same myth system of discourse about what constitutes women's subordination and power. The book seeks to navigate the issue of 'power' by approaching it in terms which the Shetland woman understood in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Abstract only
Lynn Abrams

conditions at the stations and their herring ‘career’, whether this was confined to Shetland or extended down the east coast to East Anglia. So while herring gutters as a group do not conform to the ideal type of Shetland womanhood, the gutters themselves express the same kinds of sentiments about female identity as women in other occupations. Conclusions The three sectors discussed in this chapter cover the majority of the work experiences of Shetland women. Whilst some worked in other jobs (retailing for instance), the numbers were small. An understanding of women’s work

in Myth and materiality in a woman’s world
Author: Alannah Tomkins

Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.

Protection of animals in nineteenth-century Britain
Author: Diana Donald

This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.

A continuity in lifestyle
Brad Beaven

. Another unofficial commentary on youth adopted an altogether more traditional and aggressive tone and stemmed from a fear that Britain’s elite and civilised culture was under threat from new forms of American leisure and work patterns, something which British youths were condemned for embracing. It is the findings of this elitist group of researchers that we shall examine first. The most dominant strand of thinking on youth during the interwar period remained with the traditionalists, who had found a voice in the 1930s through the Cambridge-based ‘Scrutiny’ group led by F

in Leisure, citizenship and working-class men in Britain, 1850–1945
Tim Strangleman

Introduction Ray Pahl’s Divisions of Labour represents an influential, if somewhat neglected classic text for sociologists of work. Combining formal and informal work patterns alongside discussions of both public and private realms, it was part of an upswing against a more traditional industrial sociology which privileged traditional, often male-dominated forms of employment (see Salaman 1986 ; Gallie 1988 ; Strangleman 2005 ). What Pahl realised in his writing was the need for a broader sociology of work which could encompass a wider set of

in Revisiting Divisions of Labour
Abstract only
Caitríona Beaumont

‘perfect housewife’ so pervasive during the 1950s and 1960s, voluntary women’s groups argued that wives and mothers had more to   4   Beaumont_Housewives.indd 4 06/06/2013 14:09 introduction offer society than just knowing ‘how to keep a husband happy’.19 Instead of condemning the increasing numbers of mothers going out to work in the 1950s, these groups focused their attention on the duty of the state and employers to provide more flexible work patterns and extended childcare facilities, allowing women to balance paid work with their domestic responsibilities

in Housewives and citizens
Mícheál Ó hAodha

community which is always an amalgam of an already long-extant travelling peoples and smaller numbers of non-Travellers who frequently joined their community through marriage or because they pursued similar economic interests or work patterns. Where did we come from? I’ve often asked myself that question … Some say that the Travellers left their houses and started travelling. They left old shacks at the side of the road because they couldn’t make a living anymore. People say that it was the landlords and the evictions that were the cause of this. That is only one part of

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’
Bryan Fanning

the dregs of society. Many feel that they would demean themselves by associating with them. Their presence is considered to lower the tone of a neighborhood. … The majority of the settled population wish to avoid any contact with itinerants in any form and break off any contact that is established as soon as possible.23 Aoife Bhreatnach summarised the social contract proposed by the Commission on Itinerancy thus: ‘Travellers were asked to surrender nomadism, family economy, self-employment, flexible work patterns, horses and their own homes for dubious pleasures of

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Working-class white women, interracial relationships and colonial ideologies in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Liverpool
Diane Frost

Caribbean settled and became concentrated in areas inside the Liverpool 8 district that initially related to work patterns but which subsequently reflected social and political conditions, including discrimination. 11 Census figures for 1911 put Liverpool’s black population at about three thousand. By the time of the 1919 disturbances, this had increased to around five thousand. 12 Yet, despite the long

in The empire in one city?