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Author: Brad Beaven

This book analyses the development of male leisure against the changing notions of citizenship which underpinned perceptions of British society during the period 1850-1945. It opens with an examination of the 'leisure' problem of the middle decades of the nineteenth century. After the defeat of Chartism and associated challenges to the employers' right to organise the workplace, factory owners, the clergy and philanthropists established schemes of rational recreation designed to attract and educate working-class males. The book explores how schemes of rational recreation attempted to create the model citizen and the impact of these strategies on male working-class leisure. Taking three influential leisure activities - drink, the music hall and association football - the book explores their impact on both concepts of citizenship and male leisure patterns. In addition, commercial leisure also highlighted the marked gender divides in leisure activities found within working-class households. The book investigates the generational issues that shaped male working-class leisure. The increase in non-apprenticed semi-skilled work, particularly in the 'new' industry regions, raised fears that monotonous working practices and new leisure activities were a dangerous social cocktail. Moreover the book investigates how, during the late Victorian and early Edwardian era, the problem of a 'degenerate' youth became entwined with anxieties over the future of empire. It further contextualises male leisure against the dominant concerns between 1918 and 1945. This era saw the suburbanisation of British cities, continued anxieties over male citizenry and increased international tensions that led to war.

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Juliette Pattinson, Arthur McIvor, and Linsey Robb

strengthened masculinities in these myriad ways, it is problematic to argue that civilian men were emasculated, challenged and lacking in masculinity. Such language risks v 331 v 332 Men in reserve flattening out the incongruities and ambiguities of civilian working-​class male experience in the Second World War. The impact of the war on the identities of male workers was complex and sometimes contradictory. Understandably, given that it involved millions of men in an array of occupations, there was no single grand narrative of reserved status; the configurations of

in Men in reserve
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Brad Beaven

pursuits of the late nineteenth century ‘were more readily accessible to the more affluent workers of more prosperous expanding towns, such as Coventry, but just occasional treats for many in Salford’.13 Furthermore, historians charting the early development of social citizenship in Britain have perceived the movement as the civic elites’ response to the poverty-stricken people of the inner-city slums.14 However, working-class males in the Midlands were also subjected to a plethora of social citizenship schemes, even though they experienced very different material

in Leisure, citizenship and working-class men in Britain, 1850–1945
Working-class male leisure and ‘good’ citizenship between the wars
Brad Beaven

-going and finally radio broadcasting in order to establish The era of mass communication whether working-class males really did embrace a more ‘homogeneous’, less class-specific culture, as some historians have argued. 2 The impact of reading on leisure patterns between the wars has often been overlooked by historians, as it was essentially a home-based activity. Although it had always featured in some part of working-class leisure patterns, after 1914 a rapid increase in the number of books published and a significant growth in libraries suggest that reading played a

in Leisure, citizenship and working-class men in Britain, 1850–1945
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Glorifying the working body
Joanne Begiato

combination of aestheticism, politics, and the erotic is most evident in the writings of Edward Carpenter, who conceptualised desire for the working-class male body as a means to throw off ‘bourgeois 175 176 Manliness in Britain, 1760–1900 bodily repression’ and enable the rebirth of society. For Carpenter, the ‘potent naked body of the laboring man writ large was the very emblem of Democracy’. This vision of ‘priapic Labor’, Livesey argues, differed from ‘the aestheticised visions of the honest working man, visible from Ford Madox Brown’s Work through to Soviet era

in Manliness in Britain, 1760–1900
An epilogue
Joanne Begiato

This epilogue explores the continued resonances of emotionalised bodies and material culture for contemporary masculinities. It considers men’s ‘spectacular bodies’ in entertainment and advertising, along with their more sinister political associations and uses. Then it explores the imaginative conjunction of emotions, bodies, and material culture in formulations of military masculinity in recruitment drives, in the romanticised and politicised tropes of servicemen’s damaged bodies and minds, and in creative projects seeking to materialise military men’s experiences. It shows how changed forms of male work, as well as unemployment, retirement, illness, and, more recently, paternal caring roles, are now configured through men’s uneasy presence in the home: an arena in which manhood is still presumed to be undermined or compromised. Finally, it shows how the emotionalised working-class male body has changed as radically as notions of class itself in the post-industrial economy of British society. There are no noble images of working-class men at their labours. Most images of working-class men are derogatory, whether they are perceived as a dangerous political threat or a redundant, residual form of masculinity. It concludes that the culture wars of late capitalism are fought over men’s bodies and emotions.

in Manliness in Britain, 1760–1900
Chris Williams

J.M.Staniforth (1863-1921) was for the best part of three decades one of Britain’s most prominent and popular cartoonists, his work reaching a wide audience at home and abroad. This essay examines Staniforth’s response to the rise of the Labour party. As a Conservative himself, Staniforth observed the labour movement’s flexing of its muscles within the constraints of the informal Lib-Lab alliance with wry detachment. Sympathetic to the older, more moderate generation of leaders, he was more antagonistic towards explicitly socialist and independent labour elements. Hostile depictions of Keir Hardie and Ramsay MacDonald were the norm. Working-class male voters and trade unionists, however, were often represented, before the Edwardian ‘labour unrest’, as guileless, prone to be misled and misused by their self-serving leaderships.

In the last decade of his life Staniforth moved away from depicting the essential innocence and naivety of the British working man to a more suspicious and fearful representation focusing instead on volatility, bloody-mindedness and the threat that the organized working-class was held to present to the safety and security of the British people as a whole. A study of this influential cartoonist offers insight into certain elements of contemporary public opinion regarding the rise of labour.

in The art of the possible
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Author: Steve Blandford

This is the first book-length study of one of the most significant of all British television writers, Jimmy McGovern. The book provides comprehensive coverage of all his work for television including early writing on Brookside, major documentary dramas such as Hillsborough and Sunday and more recent series such as The Street and Accused.

Whilst the book is firmly focused on McGovern’s own work, the range of his output over the period in which he has been working also provides something of an overview of the radical changes in television drama commissioning that have taken place during this time. Without compromising his deeply-held convictions McGovern has managed to adapt to an ever changing environment, often using his position as a sought-after writer to defy industry trends.

The book also challenges the notion of McGovern as an uncomplicated social realist in stylistic terms. Looking particularly at his later work, a case is made for McGovern employing a greater range of narrative approaches, albeit subtly and within boundaries that allow him to continue to write for large popular audiences.

Finally it is worth pointing to the book’s examination of McGovern’s role in recent years as a mentor to new voices, frequently acting as a creative producer on series that he part-writes and part brings through different less-experienced names.

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Louise A. Jackson and Angela Bartie

). The Scottish cities of Dundee and Glasgow witnessed increased conflict between police and young white working-class males that was linked to lack of amenities on relatively new peripheral housing schemes. In inner-city Manchester and London, however, both seen as magnets for runaway teenage girls because of their vibrant entertainments industries, the attentions of police and social workers focused instead on unlicensed music clubs, sexual corruption, drugs misuse, and the mixing of classes and races. In both cases the opportunity was used by the police to increase

in Policing youth
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Brad Beaven

, working-class male leisure was deemed a problem throughout the period. This study has outlined contemporary debates on citizenship and evaluated its impact on male leisure patterns. Although patterns of leisure undoubtedly changed with the demise of rational recreation and the subsequent rise of commercialised leisure, one is struck by the considerable degree of continuity in the years 1850–1945. There is a distinct trend of working males creating a culture, within leisure institutions such as the public house, football match and club, which was both class and gender

in Leisure, citizenship and working-class men in Britain, 1850–1945