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Manchester, 1840–1919

This book provides a distinctive and original contribution to the historiography of sport, adding considerably to our understanding of the origins of soccer within the Manchester region. It is the first academic study of the development of association football in Manchester and is directly linked to the debates within sports history on football’s origins. Its regional focus informs the wider debate, contextualising the growth of the sport in the city and identifying communities that propagated and developed football. The period 1840–1919 saw Manchester’s association game develop from an inconsequential, occasionally outlawed activity, into a major business with a variety of popular football clubs and supporting industries. This study of Manchester football considers the sport’s emergence, development and establishment through to its position as the city’s leading team sport. What establishes a football culture and causes it to evolve is not simply the history of a few clubs, governing bodies, local leagues or promoting schools, but a conglomeration of all of these. The book is innovative in its approach to the origins of footballing in Manchester, where the sport has generally been assumed not to have existed until the creation of what became Manchester City and Manchester United.

This book analyses the development of male leisure against the changing notions of citizenship which underpinned perceptions of British society during the period 1850-1945. It opens with an examination of the 'leisure' problem of the middle decades of the nineteenth century. After the defeat of Chartism and associated challenges to the employers' right to organise the workplace, factory owners, the clergy and philanthropists established schemes of rational recreation designed to attract and educate working-class males. The book explores how schemes of rational recreation attempted to create the model citizen and the impact of these strategies on male working-class leisure. Taking three influential leisure activities - drink, the music hall and association football - the book explores their impact on both concepts of citizenship and male leisure patterns. In addition, commercial leisure also highlighted the marked gender divides in leisure activities found within working-class households. The book investigates the generational issues that shaped male working-class leisure. The increase in non-apprenticed semi-skilled work, particularly in the 'new' industry regions, raised fears that monotonous working practices and new leisure activities were a dangerous social cocktail. Moreover the book investigates how, during the late Victorian and early Edwardian era, the problem of a 'degenerate' youth became entwined with anxieties over the future of empire. It further contextualises male leisure against the dominant concerns between 1918 and 1945. This era saw the suburbanisation of British cities, continued anxieties over male citizenry and increased international tensions that led to war.

Organisation and competition 123 6 Organisation and competition The Manchester Football Association Following the aborted attempt to establish a Manchester–Staffordshire Football Association in 1876 and the establishment of the Lancashire Football Association (Lancashire FA) in 1878, the requirement to establish regular competition and localised rules was recognised in numerous locations around the country. The growth of soccer in Lancashire following the establishment of the county FA demonstrated that formalised competition aided Lancashire’s soccer

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254 The emergence of footballing cultures Conclusion By 1919 Manchester was regarded as a footballing city with two prominent, popular and successful Football League clubs bearing its name and other professional teams established within its conurbation. It had its own football association and a multitude of leagues and competitions at every level. Major finals, international and representative games had been held there and football was in evidence, being an important component of the region’s identity and ­culture. The sport had crossed class divides

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Introduction Traditionally, association football’s history has been told through a range of narratives that have focused either on the national picture or on specific clubs, with some studies focusing on how football was introduced, developed and propagated across a region.1 There have been notable studies which have added to our knowledge but, as studies into Spanish football have identified, there are also significant gaps both in our knowledge and in the regions covered.2 This publication fills one of those gaps while also providing an example of a framework

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regarded themselves as the guardians of the sport and, in effect, the organising members of their committee positioned themselves as the Lancastrian rugby elite, playing the leading role in all areas of the game’s management locally. Another early football club was Sale, which, according to some reports, can trace its formation back to 1859 and was for several years perceived as an association football club.3 Reports and discussion of association-­style games in the 1860s do exist for several occasions, suggesting that Sale alternated their style of play at times, with

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public schoolboys. Nonetheless, the rugby community did engage across class boundaries and continued to grow. While rugby remained the conurbation’s most prominent team sport, association football struggled for attention, being kept alive by a small band of soccer enthusiasts. Assisted by John Nall’s driving force, Hulme Athenaeum had ignited an interest, but in the two years following its demise Manchester seems to have been bereft of a club. There was also criticism from high-­ranking community leaders, and the bishop of Manchester commented that in general sport was

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neighbours. After the development of Philips Park, the sporting life of Manchester grew rapidly. The formalised development of sports such as association football, rugby and lacrosse did not occur until the second half of the nineteenth century, when Acts of Parliament such as the 1847 and 1850 Factory Acts, which reduced the working week, combined with the increase in public park provision.11 It is accepted that Manchester was the first major British city in which all trades obtained a 2pm finish on Saturdays, although Hewitt believes that the 1847 Ten Hours Act was

in The emergence of footballing cultures

level the sport had never been more popular, mainly because of the efforts of several prominent footballing enthusiasts whose actions followed the process outlined by Bonde, who has stated: ‘Society is made up of the (often unconscious) structure-­creating actions of the individuals in it’ without which ‘the individuals would lose their bearings’.3 The Manchester Schools Football Association (MSFA), representing schools in Manchester, Stretford and Salford, was established by individuals and created a structure that developed and promoted School, work and leisure

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Games within games
Editor: J. Simon Rofe

The purpose of this book is to critically enhance the appreciation of diplomacy and sport in global affairs from the perspective of practitioners and scholars. The book will make an important new contribution to at least two distinct fields: diplomacy and sport, as well as to those concerned with history, politics, sociology and international relations. The critical analysis the book provides explores the linkages across these fields, particularly in relation to soft power and public diplomacy, and is supported by a wide range of sources and methodologies. The book draws in a range of scholars across these different fields, and includes esteemed FIFA scholar Professor Alan Tomlinson. Tomlinson addresses diplomacy within the world’s global game of Association Football, while other subjects include the rise of mega-sport events as sites of diplomacy, new consideration of Chinese ping-pong diplomacy prior to the 1970s and the importance of boycotts in sport – particularly in relation to newly explored dimensions of the boycotts of the 1980 and 1984 Olympic Games. The place of non-state actors is explored throughout: be they individual or institutions they perform a crucial role as conduits of the transactions of sport and diplomacy. Based on twentieth- and twenty-first-century evidence, the book acknowledges antecedents from the ancient Olympics to the contemporary era, and in its conclusions offers avenues for further study based on the future sport and diplomacy relationship. The book has a strong international basis because it covers a broad range of countries, their diplomatic relationship with sport and is written by a truly transnational cast of authors. The intense media scrutiny of the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup and other international sports will also contribute to the global interest in this volume.