Dominant visions have tended towards imagining Europe as an object - an entity of one sort or another. This book explores the different spaces of Europe/European Union (EU). The first part of the book presents research critically examining actor practices within familiar spaces of action - the European Parliament and the European Commission. It makes the case for the salience of research which distinguishes between spaces of 'frontstage' and 'backstage' politics and shows the interactions between the two. One cannot understand how EU gender mainstreaming policy really works unless one engages with the processes and actors involved. The second part presents research showing how, through their political work, a range of individuals and groups have sought to reconcile Europe with social representations of their industry or their nation to bring about change. It presents a case study of impact assessment of flatfish stocks in the North Sea, and contributes to the cross-fertilisation of Science and Technology Studies with a political sociology of the EU. The book shows how actors are pursuing regional interests, and the work they do in referencing Europe promotes agendas in the 'home' contexts of Scotland and canton Zurich. The final part of the book explores practices of EU government which either have been under-explored hitherto or are newly emerging. These are the knowledge work of a European consultant; measurement work to define and create a European education policy space; collective private action to give social meaning to sustainable Europe.
Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn
2 Europe’s 1950s: reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression If … the European Defence Community should not become effective; if France and Germany remain apart … That would compel an agonising reappraisal of basic United States policy. (John Foster Dulles)1 Summary Reconstruction in Western Europe, completed by the early 1950s, led to unbounded optimism about future economic growth and to a strong desire for closer integration. Following the creation of the Council of Europe in 1949 among ten West European countries, six went further in
Making sense of Europe through data and statistics
Sotiria Grek and Martin Lawn
6 Measuring Europe: making sense of Europe through data and statistics Sotiria Grek and Martin Lawn Introduction This chapter focuses on education policy in Europe and shows its significant, yet largely disregarded, role in the making of the European Union (EU). Although education can be seen as a cornerstone for building a common European identity and collective demos, it has never been an EU ‘competency’. On the contrary, that Member States should retain formal control over education politics has been a consistent political choice. This historical reality has
Usages of Europe in national identity projects
Jenny Ozga and Farah Dubois-Shaik
4 Referencing Europe: usages of Europe in national identity projects Jenny Ozga and Farah Dubois-Shaik Introduction In this chapter, we work with the idea developed in the Introduction to this volume of conceptualising Europe organically, as a simultaneously real and imagined space of action that comes into being through the actions of groups of actors whose interests are socially constructed (Carter et al., 2015). In this instance, the actors in question are pursuing regional interests, and the work they do in referencing Europe promotes agendas in the ‘home
Collective private action and sustainable Europe
7 Depoliticising Europe: collective private action and sustainable Europe Caitríona Carter Introduction This book sets a broad agenda challenging dominant rationalist assumptions about the European Union (EU). Rather than reifying Europe as an entity with intrinsic properties – e.g., supranational, intergovernmental or multi-level Europe – it makes the case for conceiving of the EU instead as a real and imagined space of action, which exists only to the extent that ‘Europeans’ and others act in and on it, and are shaped through it. Indeed, ‘Europe’ is seen as
Backstage versus frontstage politics in the European Parliament
1 Performing Europe: backstage versus frontstage politics in the European Parliament Ruth Wodak Introduction1 Politics is for the most of us a passing parade of abstract symbols, yet a parade which our experience teaches us to be a benevolent or malevolent force that can be close to omnipotent. Because politics does visibly confer wealth, take life, imprison and free people, and represent a history with strong emotional and ideological associations, its processes become easy objects upon which to displace private emotions, especially strong anxieties and hopes
Mainstreaming gender in Directorate-General for Research, European Commission
2 Interpreting Europe: mainstreaming gender in Directorate-General for Research, European Commission Rosalind Cavaghan Introduction The European Union (EU) is a world leader in terms of its commitment to gender equality. As a result of an activist EU Parliament, effective feminist NGO lobbying, pro-active policy initiation within the Commission and support within the European Council, the EU boasts a comprehensive suite of policy commitments to gender equality (Kantola, 2010). These are underpinned by a long history of normative commitments to gender equality
The political work of impact assessment
Diego de la Hoz del Hoyo
3 Modelling Europe: the political work of impact assessment Diego de la Hoz del Hoyo Introduction Calls for a stronger dialogue between the fields of Science and Technology Studies (STS) and Political Science have been frequent in the scholarly literature,1 including between STS and the development of a political sociology of European integration.2 On the one hand, STS has traditionally offered laboratory studies in different guises, yet the idea of the European Union (EU) itself as a ‘laboratory’ has not really been taken up.3 On the other hand, the field of EU
The political and economic growth of a continent
Kjell M. Torbiörn
This study interprets and interrelates the major political, economic and security developments in Europe – including transatlantic relations – from the end of World War II up until the present time, and looks ahead to how the continent may evolve politically in the future. It weaves all the different strands of European events together into a single picture that gives the reader a deep understanding of the continent, and of its current and future challenges. The first chapters trace European reconstruction and political, economic and security developments – both in the East and in the West – leading up to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Later chapters examine the European Union's reform efforts, enlargement, movement to a single currency and emerging security role; the political and economic changes in central and Eastern Europe, including Russia; the break up of Yugoslavia and the wars that ensued; and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)'s enlargement and search for a new mission. Final chapters deal with forces affecting Europe's future, such as terrorism, nationalism, religion, demographic trends and globalisation.
Territorial party strategies in a multi-level system
This book explores how regional political parties use Europe to advance their territorial projects in times of rapid state restructuring. It examines the ways in which decentralisation and supranational integration have encouraged regional parties to pursue their strategies across multiple territorial levels. The book constitutes the first attempt to unravel the complexities of how nationalist and statewide parties manoeuvre around the twin issues of European integration and decentralisation, and exploit the shifting linkages within multi-level political systems. In a detailed comparative examination of three cases—Scotland, Bavaria and Sardinia—over a thirty-year period, it explores how integration has altered the nature of territorial party competition and identifies the limits of Europe for territorial projects. In addressing these issues, this work moves beyond present scholarship on multi-level governance to explain the diversity of regional responses to Europe. It provides insights and empirical research on the conduct of territorial party politics, and a model of territorial mobilisation in Europe.