In two parts, the book examines, first, the attempts of three thinkers of the first half of the twentieth century to reconcile, in different socio-cultural contexts, the legacy of idealist philosophy with the claims of empirical social science, and, secondly, the trajectory of Bourdieu’s career in France from philosophy student to sociological researcher to political activist. It traces a progression from thought to action, but an emphasis on action informed by thought. It poses the question whether Bourdieu’s attempted integration of intellectualism and empiricism correlated with his particular socio-historical situation or whether it offers a global paradigm for advancing inter-cultural understanding. The book is of interest in confronting the question whether socio-political organization is best understood by social scientists or by participants in society, by experts or by the populace. It will stimulate general consideration of the relevance of a sociological perspective in everyday life and how much that perspective should be dependent on inherited concepts. Part I analyses the work of Alfred Schutz, Aron Gurwitsch and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Part II that of Pierre Bourdieu. The book is methodologically meticulous in situating these works socio-historically. It provides an introduction to some ideas in social philosophy and shows how these ideas became instrumental in generating a theory of practice. The book is aimed at post-graduate students and staff in all disciplines in the Humanities, and Human and Social sciences, but, more generally, it should interest all academics concerned about the contemporary social function of intellectuals.
The origins and evolution of an intellectual social project
’ [the historical development of Gestalt psychology]. These six lectures, given in 1933–34, led to his first published article in French (Gurwitsch, 1934) and to two subsequent articles of 1936 (Gurwitsch, 1936b and 1936c). Gurwitsch gave his second course at the Sorbonne in 1934–35 on ‘intentionalist psychology’10 and, the following year (1935–36), the third on the work of Goldstein and Gelb. His interest in the psychology of language led to his second French publication – a review of Psychologie du langage published in 1935 (Gurwitsch, 1935). This was followed by an
Social and cultural modernity beyond the nation-state
Habermas and European integration examines the attitudes of German philosopher Jürgen Harbermas towards the European Union and the proposed European Constitution of 2004. Habermas wrote in support of this Constitution which ultimately remained unratified after referendums in 2005. This book combines an exploration of both Habermas’s ideas and of the crises on the European Union; these are both currently topical subjects. The book is divided into two main parts. The first section addresses the concept of ‘social modernity’ at EU level whilst exploring Habermas’s notion of juridification and its affinities with integration theories. The second section considers ‘cultural modernity’ in Europe and focuses on the impact of ‘Europessimism’ which grew in the late twentieth century and intensified in the years following 9/11. There is also a final third section which looks at the conceptual landscape of the Constitutional Convention using empirical research. With an interdisciplinary approach, the book engages with EU studies, critical and political theory, international relations, intellectual history, comparative literature and philosophy. Habermas and European integration was originally published in 2012 with this second edition being published in paperback with a new preface to coincide with Habermas’s ninetieth birthday. This republication follows several developments in European politics which are explored in the revised preface; the original text is maintained with annotations supplied for correction. The book appeals to multiple readerships including students and scholars as well as broader readers who might be interested in European affairs especially considering the ongoing political crises.
that ‘reality’ is inaccessible. Aron Gurwitsch (1901–73) studied in Berlin under Carl Stumpf, who had struggled there to reconcile the legacy of German idealist philosophy with the emerging sciences of physiology and psychology. The form of reconciliation attempted by Gurwitsch involved seeking to argue for the theoretical benefits to be derived from associating the emphases of phenomenology and Gestalt psychology. Gestalt psychology was intent on demonstrating empirically that there are objective networks of meaning which impinge on our perception and which are not
carrying out compulsory military service from mid-October 1930 until midOctober 1931, after which he commenced work as Professor of Philosophy in a lycée at Beauvais. It was only after the completion of his military service that Merleau-Ponty began to study systematically the new schools of psychology which seemed to be supplanting associationism. On 8 April 1933, he submitted an application for a project on the nature of perception in which he specifically mentioned experimental research undertaken in Germany by the Gestalt school which seemed to be suggesting that form
A multidisciplinary perspective
, we now abandon the realm of choice theory and enter psychology. In contrast to economists, psychologists are used to dealing with changing valuations. Thus, rather than focusing on exchange processes, we now look at processes which may precede choice activities. Witt (1987b) and Woo (1992) – independently of each other – have chosen similar approaches in order to explain the adoption of novelty. Instead of sticking to rational choice theory, they allow for preference change. In so doing, they stress Menger’s third aspect, i.e. cognition of the causal connection
countryside. 5 In London, according to official figures, half the entire school population was evacuated. 6 Susan Isaacs, Lucy Fildes and John Bowlby, a young medically trained psychologist who had studied with most major figures in English psychology and psychoanalysis at the time, including Melanie Klein and Cyril Burt, were amongst a growing group of psychologists and
epidemiological exploration, and then promoting it to the rest of the world. This was an important project that enabled a complete transformation of models for thinking about child development. Nikolas Rose’s work on the spread of ‘human relations’ psychology as important to the development of social models and modes of governmentality has been critical in explaining how the psychological sciences have enabled
Antagonism, parallelism, and chiasmus
characters, first and foremost Tarquin and Lucrece. Chiasmus and parallelism in small units influence the content – and the content of the text interacts with its gestalt . 7 With regard to the characters, they also refer to the link between the body and the soul, especially when an ‘exchange’ takes place between Tarquin and Lucrece, the ‘spotted princess’ that is his soul; in this case, chiasmus helps overcome the antagonism between the characters in
themselves provide a more general basis for a theory of the extended self. For that it is necessary to go directly to Merleau-Ponty’s own work, 30 EXSELF.indb 30 The extended self 30/07/2014 13:39:08 followed by that of Polanyi, who between them furnish the foundations for some of the principal ideas in this book. Like Husserl, Merleau-Ponty is careful to distinguish phenomenology from the explanatory sciences as a purely ‘descriptive psychology’: ‘[It] tries to give a direct description of our experience as it is [added emphasis] without taking account of its