The evolving core executive in response
to burgeoning ICT
The move to more liberalisation within markets after the 1980s marked
a significant disjuncture in many economic sectors. In the case of
the ICT sector, where market liberalisation has had a significant
impact in many countries, liberalisation has meant a distinctive change
from monopoly (often by the state/state corporation) to market-driven
The case of Japan’s ICT sector offers a potentially useful example
because of its history of market competition dating back to 1985, when
This book explores the transformation of the Japanese state in response to a variety of challenges by focusing on two case studies: Information and Communications Technology (ICT) regulation and anti-monopoly regulation after the 1980s, which experienced a disjuncture and significant transformation during the period, with particularistic approaches embracing competition. The case studies set up the state as the key locus of power, in contrast to pluralist and rational choice schools, which regard the state as insignificant. The analytical framework is drawn from key theories of governance and the state including the concepts of the core executive and the regulatory state. The book explores the extent to which there is asymmetric dominance on the part of Japan’s core executive through an examination of recent developments in the Japanese regulatory tradition since the 1980s. It concludes that the transformation of the Japanese state in the two case studies can be characterised as Japanese regulatory state development, with a view that the state at a macro level is the key locus of power. This book explores the transformation of the state and governance in a Japanese context and presents itself as an example of the new governance school addressing the state, its transformation, and the governance of the political arena in Japanese politics and beyond, setting out a challenge to the established body of pluralist and rational choice literature on Japanese politics.
Regulatory state transformation with an
This chapter examines the specific characteristics of Japan’s ICT regulation
after the 1980s. The chapter first considers the impact of state transformation through the institutional characteristics of the ICT regulator as a
ministry and the lack of an independent regulator. The impact of the collective view and power relations between state actors regarding issues such
as regulatory organisations exemplify the development of state transformation. Japan offers an unusual example in which only a limited
Torben Krings, Elaine Moriarty, James Wickham, Alicja Bobek and Justyna Salamońska
‘keep in touch’ with friends and family back
home in Poland. In fact, these virtual technologies of mobility became
central to the transnational lives of our participants not only in terms
of maintaining contact with ‘home’ but also in terms of creating new
connections in Dublin. In conjunction with new travel opportunities,
ICTs created a new experience of mobility beyond the ‘container’ of the
nationstate, as Polish migrants increasingly lived a life ‘in-between’.
Low-cost air travel and a new world of mobility
New transport technologies, and especially low-cost air
use of consumer Internet connections by many workers,
especially in high-technology-associated industries – the
‘consumer’ is not easily separated from the homeworker.
This is especially critical when considering that productivity growth in
the struggling Western economies is enabled by ICT (information
communication technology). Without adequate unthrottled Internet
connections, this productivity and
capacity at higher levels to maintain an ‘authoritarian
resilience’ (Brødsgaard and Zheng 2006).
The advantages of a dense network of party members influencing all
aspects of public life may be dissipated by unpopular behaviour by the
few. The CCP’s strategy to resist its own demise is evident in several
trends within the Party’s membership profile, its use of the media and
the employment of ICT.
CCP’s adroit use of the media, discussed more fully later, was highlighted by the positioning of the leadership in coverage of the
disastrous earthquake in Sichuan in 2008.8 As
This book looks at sovereignty as a particular form of power and politics. It shows that the fate of bodies in the transition from life to death can provide a key to understanding fundamental ways in which sovereignty is claimed and performed. The contributions analyse (post-)conflict as well as non-conflict contexts, which too often are studied in isolation from one another. Focusing on contemporary issues rather than the equally important historical dimensions, they all grapple with the questions of who governs the dead bodies, how, why and with what effects. The book analyses how dead bodies are placed and dealt with in spaces between competing, overlapping and nested sovereign orders, under normal as well as exceptional conditions. It looks at contributions that draw on psychoanalysis, critical theory, the structuralist-functionalist anthropology of burial rituals and recent ideas of agency and materiality. The book first explains the efforts of states to contain and separate out dead bodies in particular sites. It explores the ways in which such efforts of containment are negotiated and contested in struggles between different entities that claim the dead bodies. The book then shows how entities that claim sovereignty produce effects of sovereignty by challenging and transgressing the laws regarding the legitimate use of violence and how dead bodies should be treated with dignity.
asymmetric dominant position in relation to societal actors, drawing on
fluid changes of power within the core executive. The evolution of Japan’s
regulatory framework in ICT regulation and anti-monopoly regulation
exemplifies state transformation dominated by a loose network of the
core executive. The next two sections analyse specific examples that
demonstrate the dominance of the core executive in the case studies: the
138 The nature of Japanese governance
sequence of shaping regulators and the capacity of the Japanese regulatory state. While the
as its rhetoric. As a major accomplishment, the administration
restored the LDP’s preliminary examination system – the PARC’s preliminary examination of government bills – within policy-making processes after the 2012 change of government (Takenaka 2013). This could
have enabled Liberal Democrats outside the Cabinet to regain power
over government organisations such as the MIC and the JFTC; however,
what has actually been observed is their lack of explicit influence in
policy-making arenas (Yomiuri online 2014).
In ICT regulation, Abe’s abrupt call for mobile phone
Information and communication technologies
and the role of consumers in innovation
As a contribution to current discussions of the role of both actual consumers
and representations of consumers in the innovation process, this chapter
considers two empirical studies of the information and communication technology (ICT) industries. It asks:
1 To what extent, how and when are consumers (i.e. potential end users)
considered or involved during the design of new products?
2 When consumers are actually involved in the process of innovation, what