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Connections between East and West in the Middle Ages
François-Olivier Touati

key feature of Islam. 59 More widely, the movement of people along trade and pilgrimage routes between East and West helps us to appreciate how ideas, attitudes and practices relating to lepers and leprosy circulated on a global level. These exchanges are crucial to understanding the development of leper houses, the institutions that supported leprosy sufferers and enabled them to form communities and share in a common identity. Leprosaria did not emerge primarily because of anxieties about contagion, but rather as a result of social and religious currents and

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Malika Ezzahidi

4 Quarantine in Ceuta and Malta in the travel writings of the late eighteenthcentury Moroccan ambassador Ibn Uthmân Al-Meknassî Malika Ezzahidi Introduction Interest in public health on the southern littoral of the Mediterranean Sea began to decline by the end of what is considered as the golden age of medieval Islamic medicine between the eighth and the thirteenth centuries. Before this occurred, hospitals (bîmâristâns) had played a central role in the treatment of the sick in major Islamic cities.1 In the case of Morocco, for example, Marrakech and Fez

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Hajj, cholera and Spanish–Moroccan regeneration, 1890–99
Francisco Javier Martínez

-day state of Mogador Island. quarantined. The leading role of international health bodies and foreign doctors in this process has led to the belief that this was solely a consequence of European imperialism. Thus, Michael C. Low has argued that the real or perceived political and sanitary risks Europeans attached to the Hajj merged in a pathologising narrative of ‘twin infection’ by PanIslamism and epidemics which stood behind Europe’s mounting intervention in Islamic countries in that period.5 Actually, we think this narrative was also appropriated by local Islamic

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
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Mediterranean quarantine disclosed: space, identity and power
John Chircop and Francisco Javier Martínez

. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of this book illuminates the similarities, the differences and the overlapping of quarantine institutions and practices throughout the region, showing for instance how Christian and Islamic 4 Mediterranean quarantines, 1750–1914 populations perceived, and their governments dealt with, infectious disease from plague to yellow fever and cholera. This volume is, in sum, also interested in ‘joining the Anglosphere conversation’5 and thus engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a range of terms, sources

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
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The sanitary control of Muslim pilgrims from the Balkans, 1830–1914
Christian Promitzer

–78) Throughout the nineteenth century, male Muslims from the Balkans participated in the pilgrimages to the holy places of Islam on the Arabian Peninsula. Since the mid 1830s travellers from the Eastern Balkans – Bulgaria – could use steamships that were routinely plying the lower course of the Danube and the Black Sea in order to get to Constantinople. From this port, they could connect to international travel routes. With regard to pilgrims from the Central Balkans – Kosovo, Macedonia and Western Thrace – they would embark at the port of Salonika for Alexandria. Their fellow

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Elisha P. Renne

a health team which went to test the vaccine in South Africa. 37 At the same time, the Jama’atu Nasril Islam (JNI), the umbrella organisation for Muslims in Nigeria, sent a team of their own experts to test the vaccine in Indian laboratories. On 23 December 2003, the Minister of Health, Professor Eyitayo Lambo, announced that the ‘Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) used in Nigeria for immunisation, ‘had been found to be safe and free of anti

in The politics of vaccination
Daktar Binodbihari Ray Kabiraj and the metaphorics of the nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body
Projit Bihari Mukharji

. The watershed moment for the debate over multiple modernities came in 2000 when S. N. Eisenstadt edited a special issue of the journal Daedalus on the subject. 6 The contributors to the Daedalus volume described many different types of modernity ranging through Israeli, Turkish, Confucian, Islamic, Indian, Diasporic, Communist, and many more. Even before the Daedalus issue, however, postcolonial scholars such as Partha Chatterjee had made a powerful case about the fractured and plural nature of modernity

in Progress and pathology
John Chircop

filtering process which selected those who could proceed on their pilgrimage according to their socioeconomic status. This was based on the logic that wealthy pilgrims would be better equipped to travel in ‘hygienic conditions’ and to thus avoid contracting and transmitting disease. Still, selectivity according to one’s wealth or social status went against Islamic teaching, which advocated opportunities for every ‘able bodied Muslim’, poor or wealthy, to accomplish the Hajj once in a lifetime.125 The option thus left for the poor, who did not possess the officially

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Liesbeth Hesselink

more hospitals, more outpatient clinics, more doctors, more and better-qualified nurses were required. Now that the government took responsibility for the health of all civilians  – European and Indonesians alike  – an independent Civil Medical Service (CMS) was founded in 1911. Private enterprise The government in the Dutch East Indies had so far adopted a somewhat guarded position on mission and missionary work, particularly in Islamic areas. At the time of the Ethical Policy this position changed. Missionary work and missions had been found to be beneficial in

in Colonial caring