The purpose of this article is to analyse the ambivalent politics of looking and discourses of gender, class and sexuality in a variety of 1960s–70s Japanese studio-made exploitation films, known as sukeban films. It first contextualises their production within a transnational and domestic shift emphasising sex and violence in film and popular culture. The article then highlights instances where the visual, narrative and discursive articulation of non-conforming femininities flips the gendered power balance, as in the sketches that satirise men’s sexual fetishes for girls. In conclusion, it suggests to understand the filmic construction of young women’s agency, and their bodily and sexual performance, in terms of a recurring modus operandi of Japanese media that ambivalently panders to and co-constitutes youth phenomena.
The Boom of 1960s–70s Erotic Cinema and the Policing of Young Female Subjects in Japanese sukeban Films
Transformation and the regulatory state
This book explores the transformation of the Japanese state in response to a variety of challenges by focusing on two case studies: Information and Communications Technology (ICT) regulation and anti-monopoly regulation after the 1980s, which experienced a disjuncture and significant transformation during the period, with particularistic approaches embracing competition. The case studies set up the state as the key locus of power, in contrast to pluralist and rational choice schools, which regard the state as insignificant. The analytical framework is drawn from key theories of governance and the state including the concepts of the core executive and the regulatory state. The book explores the extent to which there is asymmetric dominance on the part of Japan’s core executive through an examination of recent developments in the Japanese regulatory tradition since the 1980s. It concludes that the transformation of the Japanese state in the two case studies can be characterised as Japanese regulatory state development, with a view that the state at a macro level is the key locus of power. This book explores the transformation of the state and governance in a Japanese context and presents itself as an example of the new governance school addressing the state, its transformation, and the governance of the political arena in Japanese politics and beyond, setting out a challenge to the established body of pluralist and rational choice literature on Japanese politics.
Jeremy C.A. Smith
169 8 Japan in engagement and the discourses of civilisation If civilisational analysis is lacking with respect to Latin America, it has been far from inattentive when it comes to Japan. In previous chapters, Japan serves as an illustration of theoretical engagements with civilisational analysis, as well as illustrating different points of my own argument. The frequent choice of Japan is no coincidence: it has been a focal point of investigation for comparativists in the humanities, the social sciences and political economy with an interest in civilisations
The implications of the research
the DPJ administration. The 2010 bill was abandoned for technical reasons in the Diet in 2012, and was transformed into the 2013 AMA amendment bill with practically the same contents (JFTC 2014: 19). This sequence indicates that it was not started by the Abe administration but 150 The nature of Japanese governance was a broader consensus shared by both the LDP and the DPJ. After the effectuation of the 2013 amendment, few political events with significant impacts on the sector seem to have emerged; for example, the fact that Chairman Harada posted only one brief
The politics of conflict and the producer-oriented policy response
5 Policy developments in Japan on global warming: the politics of conﬂict and the producer-oriented policy response Japan contributes only about 5 per cent of the world’s total carbon dioxide emissions, but this is the fourth highest in the world, following that of the USA (around 25 per cent), Russia (7 per cent) and China (14 per cent). Although Japanese effort to reduce its emissions can make only a marginal difference, it bears an important responsibility in taking part in the world’s effort to tackle global warming. Carbon dioxide accounts for about 90 per
implications for the politics of global warming and the main actors in policy-making over global warming will also be brieﬂy explained. Policy styles and environmental politics in Japan Consensus, concertation and developmentalism Japan underwent a major administrative reorganisation in 2001. Because this study looks largely at politics and policy before then, I will outline the previous organisation. Table 4.1 shows the main ministries and agencies involved in environmental policy. The primary responsibility for environmental policy in Japan lay with the Environment Agency
Interactions between institutions and issue characteristics
This book attempts a systematic comparison of Japanese and British climate policy and politics. Focusing on institutional contrasts between Japan and Britain in terms of corporatist or pluralist characteristics of government-industry relations and decision-making and implementation styles, it examines how and to what extent institutions explain climate policy in the two countries. In doing this, the book explores how climate policy is shaped by the interplay of nationally specific institutional factors and universal constraints on actors, which emanate from characteristics of the global warming problem itself. It also considers how corporatist institutional characteristics may make a difference in attaining sustainable development. Overall, the book provides a set of comparisons of climate policy and new frameworks of analysis, which could be built on in future research on cross-national climate policy analysis.
outside Japan if these novelists themselves had been better placed to gauge their significance and implications. The reference here is to the military, industrial and political strands of the Japanese social fabric, particularly in their higher reaches – a tightly interwoven region into which Western writers had virtually no entrée. 5 The absence of intellectually and psychologically compelling literary
examples. In-depth, systematic comparative environmental policy analysis of Japan and Britain is an area still little explored, despite the rapid growth in academic interest in comparative environmental politics and policy (Vogel, 1986; Boehmer-Christiansen and Skea, 1991; Hajer, 1995; Jänicke and Weidner, 1995; Wallace, 1995; O’Riordan and Jäger, 1996; Andersen and Leifferink, 1997; Lafferty and Meadowcroft, 2000a; Daugbjerg and Svendsen, 2001; Social Learning Group, 2001; Desai, 2002; Schreurs, 2002). One early work involving Britain and Japan is Enloe’s (1975
Japanese contestation of medical high technology
philosophy and thus it is based on the assumption that rationality is the defining feature of humans – a definition not shared by other peoples who contest brain death as a person’s death and organ transplantation as a new medical miracle. The specific cultural context of the Japanese reluctance to accept the new technology is discussed. The chapter also points to serious political and ethical implications