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Manchester, 1840–1919

This book provides a distinctive and original contribution to the historiography of sport, adding considerably to our understanding of the origins of soccer within the Manchester region. It is the first academic study of the development of association football in Manchester and is directly linked to the debates within sports history on football’s origins. Its regional focus informs the wider debate, contextualising the growth of the sport in the city and identifying communities that propagated and developed football. The period 1840–1919 saw Manchester’s association game develop from an inconsequential, occasionally outlawed activity, into a major business with a variety of popular football clubs and supporting industries. This study of Manchester football considers the sport’s emergence, development and establishment through to its position as the city’s leading team sport. What establishes a football culture and causes it to evolve is not simply the history of a few clubs, governing bodies, local leagues or promoting schools, but a conglomeration of all of these. The book is innovative in its approach to the origins of footballing in Manchester, where the sport has generally been assumed not to have existed until the creation of what became Manchester City and Manchester United.

A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector

histories of humanitarianism in places like Exeter, Galway, Geneva, London, Mainz, Manchester, Milan, Oslo, Ottawa and Sheffield. The result was a growing conversation about humanitarianism’s past and its potential to shape our understanding of the present. Those discussions have centred on three themes. The first is an insistence on moving beyond what David Lewis termed the aid sector’s ‘perpetual present’: ‘a state characterised by an abundance of frequently changing language and “buzzwords”’ ( Lewis, 2009: 33 ; see also Borton and Davey, 2015 ). High rates of staff

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement

Introduction During the 2014 West African Ebola epidemic, an estimated US$ 10 billion was spent to contain the disease in the region and globally. The response brought together multilateral agencies, bilateral partnerships, private enterprises and foundations, local governments and communities. Social mobilisation efforts were pivotal components of the response architecture ( Gillespie et al. , 2016 ; Laverack and Manoncourt, 2015 ; Oxfam International, 2015 ). They relied on grassroots community actors, classic figures of humanitarian work or development

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Manchester and the rescue of the victims of European fascism, 1933–1940

Between 1933 and 1940, Manchester received between seven and eight thousand refugees from Fascist Europe. They included Jewish academics expelled from universities in Germany, Austria, Spain and Italy. Around two hundred were children from the Basque country of Spain evacuated to Britain on a temporary basis in 1937 as the fighting of the Spanish Civil War neared their home towns. Most were refugees fleeing Nazi persecution in Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia. As much as 95% of the refugees from Nazism were Jews threatened by the increasingly violent anti-Semitism of the Nazi regime. The rest were Communists, Social Democrats, Pacifists, Liberals, Confessional Christians and Sudeten Germans. There have been several valuable studies of the response of the British government to the refugee crisis. This study seeks to assess the responses in one city—Manchester—which had long cultivated an image of itself as a ‘liberal city’. Using documentary and oral sources, including interviews with Manchester refugees, it explores the work of those sectors of local society that took part in the work of rescue: Jewish communal organisations, the Society of Friends, the Rotarians, the University of Manchester, secondary schools in and around Manchester, pacifist bodies, the Roman Catholic Church and industrialists from the Manchester region. The book considers the reasons for their choices to help to assesses their degree of success and the forces which limited their effectiveness.

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254 The emergence of footballing cultures Conclusion By 1919 Manchester was regarded as a footballing city with two prominent, popular and successful Football League clubs bearing its name and other professional teams established within its conurbation. It had its own football association and a multitude of leagues and competitions at every level. Major finals, international and representative games had been held there and football was in evidence, being an important component of the region’s identity and ­culture. The sport had crossed class divides

in The emergence of footballing cultures

240 The emergence of footballing cultures 11 School, work and leisure By 1919 the Manchester region housed multiple leagues and competitions for all ages and there were tournaments for women, developed during the war, with several factory teams such as those representing female railway workers, ironfounders and area munitions works.1 There was a Manchester Ladies Football League which also played representative games and had sought affiliation to the FA. Women’s football was popular even though the footballing authorities were not supportive, and teams such

in The emergence of footballing cultures

12 The emergence of footballing cultures 1 Folk football and early activity Manchester To understand the role that football plays in Mancunian life it is first important to appreciate how the city and its surrounding area evolved, and how sport took a hold of the region. Today Manchester is known throughout the world primarily for its football. This recognition of Manchester’s footballing culture has developed in the wake of the conurbation’s footballing successes since the beginning of the television era in the 1950s, but the city’s roots go back much

in The emergence of footballing cultures
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The earliest club 39 3 The earliest club The development of football clubs The growth of football in Manchester saw clubs such as Manchester Football Club, the ‘absolute pioneers’ of rugby in the region, being established in 1860, with several other clubs founded mostly in the then wealthier residential areas such as Broughton, Didsbury, Sale, Whalley Range and Old Trafford.1 The prominent members of these clubs appear to have been from the upper-, or from respected middle-­class occupations, many of them former public schoolboys.2 Manchester Football Club

in The emergence of footballing cultures
The mystery of the city’s smoking gun

attempt to capture something of the diversity of Manchester’s crime writing in the course of answering a simple but, I trust, provocative question: namely, who, or what, is responsible for the crime of Manchester? Who – as the title of the chapter asks – may we expect to discover brandishing the smoking gun? In advance of this investigation I should, however, like to share some thoughts on another striking feature of these texts (which I have written about elsewhere: Pearce 2007, 2012a, 2012b) and that is their achievement in capturing the urban landscape of the region

in Postcolonial Manchester
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Origins 25 2 Origins Recreational activities As noted in the previous chapter, the Athletic News claimed that the earliest recorded football match played in Manchester was on 11 February 1776, indicating that football had survived the 1608 ban and supporting Cunningham’s assertion that traditional sports and customs survived for longer than had previously been supposed.1 Football references appear frequently between 1840 and 1860 within the Manchester region, suggesting that there were enough people playing some form of football to enable the game to be

in The emergence of footballing cultures