Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez and Sylvain Landry B. Faye
leaders, Christian and Muslim religious leaders, hunters, migrant associations
and councils of elders; all of whom held a traditional legitimacy that conferred
authority in the predominantly Kissi region. But in a context of growing
mistrust between those in power and the populace, and a growing critique from
cadets sociaux , the strategy of bringing local leaders to
the fore in order to ‘develop trust’ and improve the community
Introduction The modern global humanitarian system takes the form it does because it is underpinned by
liberal world order, the post-1945 successor to the imperial world of the nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries and the global political and economic system the European empires created.
Humanitarian space, as we have come to know it in the late twentieth century, is liberal space,
even if many of those engaged in humanitarian action would rather not see themselves as liberals.
To the extent that there is something constitutively liberal about
What is it like to be a Muslim possessed by a jinn spirit? How do you find refuge
from madness and evil spirits in a place like Denmark? As elsewhere in
Europe and North America, Danish Muslims have become hypervisible through
intensive state monitoring, surveillance, and media coverage. Yet their religion
remains poorly understood and is frequently identified by politicians,
commentators, and even healthcare specialists as the underlying invisible cause
of ‘integration problems’. Over several years Christian Suhr followed
Muslim patients being treated in a Danish mosque and in a psychiatric hospital.
With this book and award-winning film he provides a unique account of the
invisible dynamics of possession and psychosis, and an analysis of how the
bodies and souls of Muslim patients are shaped by the conflicting demands of
Islam and the psychiatric institutions of European nation-states. The book
reveals how both psychiatric and Islamic healing work not only to produce relief
from pain, but also entail an ethical transformation of the patient and the
cultivation of religious and secular values through the experience of pain.
Creatively exploring the analytic possibilities provided by the use of a camera,
both text and film show how disruptive ritual techniques are used in healing to
destabilise individual perceptions and experiences of agency, so as to allow
patients to submit to the invisible powers of psychotropic medicine or God.
Relations between Europe and its Muslim minorities constitute an extensive focus for discussion both within and beyond the Continent. This book reports on the years mainly between 2005 and 2015 and focuses on the exploitation of recent European history when describing relations and the prospects for the nominally 'Christian' majority and Muslim minority. The discourse often references the Jews of Europe as a guiding precedent. The manifold references to the annals of the Jews during the 1930s, the Second World War and the Holocaust, used by both the Muslim minorities and the European 'white' (sic) majority presents an astonishing and instructive perspective. When researching Europe and its Muslim minorities, one is astonished by the alleged discrimination that the topic produces, in particular the expressions embodied in Islamophobia, Europhobia and anti-Semitism. The book focuses on the exemplary European realities surrounding the 'triangular' interactions and relations between the Europeans, Muslims and Jews. Pork soup, also known as 'identity soup', has been used as a protest in France and Belgium against multicultural life in Europe and against the Muslim migrants who allegedly enjoyed government benefits. If the majority on all sides of the triangle were to unite and marginalize the extreme points of the triangle, not by force but by goodwill, reason and patience, then in time the triangle would slowly but surely resolve itself into a circle. The Jews, Christians, Muslims and non-believers of Europe have before them a challenge.
Europe and its Muslim minorities
A good quotation should do the job of introducing the reader to a work’s
content, its mood and ambiance. Each one of the quotations in the preceding
pages could serve as a motto for a book about Europe and its Muslim migrant
minorities; several of them directly concern our work on the ‘triangle’, that is
to say, the perceptions held by Europeans, Muslims and Jews about each other
and the current encounter between Europeans and Muslim migrants. They
indicate that European–Jewish precedents have been
Fiqh al-Aqalliyat (Muslim jurisprudence on minorities); Dina de-Malchuta Dina (the law of the kingdom is the law); Dar al-Islam (abode of Islam); Dar al-Harb (abode of war)
has nothing to hope for from God – except in self-defense.’ (Koran 3:28).
Islam contributed much to the rise of European medieval culture, but its
contribution was much less during the post-medieval era. The emergence of
modern European and Western philosophies, liberal democracy, modern social
achievements and scientific discoveries occurred largely without Muslim contributions. Jews, by comparison, have been a built-in element, part and parcel,
and in certain areas the fulcrum, of modern European cultures and civilisation.
Notwithstanding historical, and in
European opposition, Muslim migrants, impact on Jews
In the same boat: European opposition,
Muslim migrants, impact on Jews
Pork soup (soupe au cochon), also known as ‘identity soup’, has been used as a
protest in France and Belgium against multicultural life inEurope and against
the Muslim migrants who allegedly enjoyed government benefits, so much so
that very little was left for needy Europeans. Since the winter of 2003 homeless
people have been served with hot pork soup made of the ears, tail and legs of
the poor animals. Theoretically, the pork menu is a guarantee that Muslims (and
Jews) will not frequent
Conclusion: brighter European–
The encounter between Muslims and the West has never been easy. Crusaders,
the Reconquista, the Bosnian massacre in the 1990s are but a few of the painful events in a long history, randomly chosen, that are often referred to and
employed towards an agenda. The present encounter is proving even more
difficult than previous confrontations between Europe and its Muslim migrants
and refugees. The latter are strongly inclined to empathise and identify with
their co-religionists who face troubles and problems in
Aspects of the ‘triangular’ relations between Europeans, Muslims and Jews
aspects of the ‘triangular’ relations
between Europeans, Muslims and Jews
Who are the MuslimsinEurope? Who are the migrants in the various European
countries? For example, 10 per cent of the 16.3 million Dutch population are
immigrants; 886,000 of them, 5.5 per cent, are Muslims, mainly Moroccans
and Turks; 60 per cent are under 35, compared to 40 per cent in the general
Dutch population. Many of the allochtonen (immigrants) live in ‘the Muslim
ghettos’ that nowadays surround the Dutch urban centres.
So much of what tolerant Dutch society
Haunted presents: the Holocaust as a
The memory of the Holocaust is intensively used, often as a theoretical and practical yardstick, by both Muslim migrant minorities and the European ‘white’
majority. The fate of European Jewry in World War II is highly discernible in
the perceptions and mutual relations between Europe and its Muslim migrants.
Muslim migrants’ attitudes towards the Holocaust’s legacy constitute a
useful starting point. With necessary caution one can say that, with exceptions, MuslimsinEurope are ill-disposed to accept that the