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From perversion to purity

The stardom of Catherine Deneuve

Edited by: Lisa Downing and Sue Harris

Few screen icons have provoked as much commentary, speculation and adulation as the 'she' of this plaudit, Catherine Deneuve. This book begins with a brief overview of Deneuve's career, followed by a critical survey of the field of theoretical star studies, highlighting its potential and limitations for European, and particularly French, film scholarship. It argues the need for the single-star case study as a model for understanding the multiple signifying elements of transnational stardom. Her first role, at the age of 13, was a brief appearance as a schoolgirl in André Hunebelle's Collégiennes/The Twilight Girls. It was in 1965 that Roman Polanski would cast Catherine Deneuve in Repulsion, described by one critic as a 'one-woman show' in a role that would effectively create a persona which would resonate throughout her future film career. The darker shades of the Deneuve persona are in even greater evidence in Tristana. Demy's Donkey Skin is arguably an equal source of the tale's iconic status in France today, and largely because of Deneuve. The book also investigates films of the 1970s; their role in shaping her star persona and the ways in which they position Deneuve in relation to French political culture. The book considers exactly why directors gravitate towards Deneuve when trying to evoke or represent forms of female homosexual activity on film, and to consider exactly what such directors actually make Deneuve do and mean once they have her performing these particular forms of lesbian relation.

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Polanski’s Deneuve

‘Frigidity’ and feminism

Lisa Downing

, was completed in two weeks. The Hakim brothers offered him the luxury of a ten-week working schedule on what was to become only by then his third film in colour (preceded by Robinson Crusoe, 1952 and La Mort en ce jardin, 1956). Buñuel had already admired Catherine Deneuve in Polanski’s Repulsion, a film exposing the darker side of the innocent ingénue who had also made her mark in upbeat films like Demy’s Les

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Introduction

Monstrous media/spectral subjects

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Fred Botting and Catherine Spooner

Monsters and spectres might seem to be opposites: one embodied, tangible, chthonic; the other incorporeal, insubstantial and ethereal. They may conjure different fears too: horror, visceral shock and corporeal repulsion or uncanny sensations of psychic displacement, temporal disturbance and haunting. Yet, as this collection of essays demonstrates, both figures circulate around

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Introduction

Horror now and then

Fred Botting

omnipresence of virtual light and life on screens. Its trajectory is double, however: Gothic versions of mortality and the sexual body emphasise bloody corpses, ripped flesh and oozing wounds. Its imagined return to the pulsing reality of the body evokes re-pulsion, a pulsion to the body and of the body, but also away from the body, a repulsion that accelerates the career of images within further simulations and

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The Germans in India

Elite European migrants in the British Empire

Series:

Panikos Panayi

While most of the Germans who suffered expulsion during the First World War lived within British shores, the Royal Navy brought Germans from throughout the world to face incarceration in the their network of camp. This book offers a new interpretation of global migration from the early nineteenth until the early twentieth century. It examines the elite German migrants who progressed to India, especially missionaries, scholars and scientists, businessmen and travellers. The book investigates the reasons for the migration of Germans to India. An examination of the realities of German existence in India follows. It then examines the complex identities of the Germans in India in the century before the First World War. The role of the role of racism, orientalism and Christianity is discussed. The stereotypes that emerged from travelogues include: an admiration of Indian landscapes; contempt for Hinduism; criticism of the plight of women; and repulsion at cityscapes. The book moves to focus upon the transformation which took place as a result of this conflict, mirroring the plight of Germans in other parts of the world. The marginalisation which took place in 1920 closely mirrored the plight of the German communities throughout the British Empire. The unique aspect of the experience in India consisted of the birth of a national identity. Finally, the book places the experience of the Germans in India into four contexts: the global history of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; German history; history of the British Empire in India; and Indian history.

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Syria and the chemical weapons taboo

Exploiting the forbidden

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Michelle Bentley

This book analyses the Syria crisis and the role of chemical weapons, in relation to US foreign policy. The Syrian government’s use of chemical weapons and their subsequent elimination would dominate the US’ response to the conflict, where these are viewed as particularly horrific arms – a repulsion known as the chemical taboo. On the surface, this would seem an appropriate reaction: these are vile and intolerable weapons, and eradicating them would ostensibly comprise a ‘good’ move. But this book reveals two new aspects of the taboo that challenge this view. First, actors employ the taboo strategically to advance their own self-interested policy objectives. This is in contrast to the highly static and constructivist approaches that have informed conceptualisation of the taboo until now. Far from a situation of normative adherence, this is a case in which the taboo exists as a strategic political resource, used to achieve aims that may have nothing to do with preventing chemical warfare. Second, it is argued that applying the taboo to Syria has exacerbated the crisis. While many expound the benefits of the taboo, it is demonstrated here that the exact opposite is true. The taboo has actually made the conflict significantly worse. As such, this book not only provides a timely analysis of Syria, but also a major and original rethink of the chemical taboo, as well as international norms more widely.

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Lisa Downing and Sue Harris

B y 1965, 22-year-old actress Catherine Deneuve had featured in seven films. Of those roles, only one had brought her serious critical recognition: the part of the fresh, innocent heroine of Jacques Demy’s musical extravaganza Les Parapluies de Cherbourg / The Umbrellas of Cherbourg (1964). It was in 1965 that Roman Polanski would cast her in Repulsion, described by one critic as a ‘one

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Véronique Bragard and Catherine Thewissen

Introduction I N M ARY S HELLEY ’ S NOVEL the central and most enigmatic moment in the life of Victor Frankenstein’s Creature is unquestionably its birth. When Victor Frankenstein faces his living Creature for the first time, he is excited by his success, but this short moment of fascination soon turns into a fearful experience of sour repulsion and disgust. The Creature’s assemblage emerges as a daunting mixture of life and death, self and other. The mystery driving this scene has led to a great number of

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Belle toujours

Deneuve as fashion icon

Fiona Handyside

Repulsion 3 , 9 , 15–28 , 30 , 58 , 69 , 158n.1 , 170 Tess 96 Polska, Mireille 98 Pompidou, Georges 78–9 Ponti, Carlo 62 Poppi, Roberto 58

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Fred Botting

, especially in its inception, may be compared with a vibration, i.e. with a rapidly alternating repulsion and attraction produced by one and the same Object. The point of excess for the imagination (toward which it is driven in the apprehension of the intuition) is like an abyss in which it fears to lose itself; yet again for the rational idea of the