This book surveys the political, economic and social history of Northern Ireland in the Second World War. Since its creation in 1920, Northern Ireland has been a deeply divided society and the book explores these divisions, including loyalist and republican commemoration, IRA activity, policing, internment, preparations for war and the absence of consensus on the war itself. It examines rearmament in the 1930s, the relatively slow pace of wartime mobilisation, the impact of the blitz in 1941, as well as labour and industrial relations. Northern Ireland was the only part of the UK with a devolved government and no military conscription during the war. The book includes the debate on conscription, including the opposition of the Catholic Church, as well as the controversy on the formation of the Home Guard. The absence of military conscription made the process of mobilisation, and the experience of men and women, very different from that in Britain. There is also extensive coverage of wartime politics and social policy. As elsewhere in the UK, the war raised important questions about housing, crime, youth welfare, and led the broader debates on social policy following the 1942 Beveridge Report. The conclusion considers Northern Ireland in 1945 and how its government faced the domestic and international challenges of the postwar world.
Politics, economic mobilisation and society, 1939-45
Past crimes, present memories
French crime fiction and the Second World War explores France's preoccupation with memories of the Second World War through an examination of crime fiction, one of popular culture's most enduring literary forms. The study analyses representations of the war years in a selection of French crime novels from the late 1940s to the 2000s. All the crime novels discussed grapple with the challenges of what it means for generations past and present to live in the shadow of the war: from memories of French resistance and collaboration to Jewish persecution and the legacies of the concentration camps. The book argues that crime fiction offers novel ways for charting the two-way traffic between official discourses and popular reconstructions of such a contested conflict in French cultural memory.
Farewell to Plato’s Cave
In the first book detailing the social and economic history of Ireland during the Second World War, Dr Bryce Evans reveals the hidden story of the Irish Emergency. If the diplomatic history of Irish neutrality is familiar, the realities of everyday life are much less so. This work provides a clear summary of Ireland’s economic survival at the time as well as an indispensable overview of every published work on Ireland during the Second World War. While useful as a textbook introducing writing about the period, the book contributes a new and enlightening take on popular material and spiritual existence as global conflict impacted the country. It compares economic and social conditions in Ireland to those of the other European neutral states: Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Portugal. It explores how the government coped with the crisis and how ordinary Irish people reacted to emergency state control of the marketplace. With their government wounded by British economic warfare, the Irish people engaged in the black market, cross-border smuggling, and popular resistance. Exploring how notions of morality intersected with state-regulated production, consumption and distribution, this study reveals a colourful history detailing exploitation, deprivation, deviance and intolerance amidst the state’s shaky survival. Drawing on a wealth of archival material, this book provides a slice of real life during a pivotal episode in Irish and world history. It will be essential reading to the informed general reader, students, and academics alike.
The People’s Armies
The book is the first systematic study of the ‘People’s Armies’ of ELAS and EDES during the occupation. Previous studies have either neglected the study of the guerrilla armies altogether or focused on their political and operational activities as a result we know very little about the lives, experiences and beliefs of the men who comprised them. Equally little is known about the nitty gritty of guerrilla life; provisioning, leisure, and relations with the civilian population. The book delves into this unexplored area and provides new insights on the formation of the resistance movements and the experiences of the guerrilla fighters. The book follows the guerrillas from enlistment to the battlefield, it examines the rise and origins of the resistance armies, explores how their experiences of hardship, combat and personal loss shaped their self-image and social attitudes and discusses the complex reasons that led partisans to enlist and fight. Existing studies have presented the guerrillas as political soldiers and underscored the importance of ideology in motivation and morale. The present study offers a more complex image and looks at a series of factors that have been neglected by scholars including kinship and group ties, violence, religious beliefs and leadership. Moreover the book discusses relations between the guerrillas and the civilian population and examines how the guerrilla armies governed their territories.
Philip M. Taylor
Chapter 23 The Second World War The Second World War witnessed the greatest propaganda battle in the history of warfare. For six years, all the participants employed propaganda on a scale that dwarfed all other conflicts, including even the First World War. There were several reasons why this was so. In the first place, this was a war between entire nations, even more so than in 1914-18. In the totalitarian nations, coercion had replaced consultation in the political process, democracy had been dismantled and the masses subjugated to the will of one party
Farewell to ‘Plato’s Cave’
declared war on Germany. When the Irish government responded later that day, declaring the Emergency Powers Act, Ireland’s independence was just seventeen years old, its constitution two years old and its control of the strategic ports barely a year old. The Ireland that appeared in the letters of the poet John Betjeman, press attaché to the British delegation in Dublin during the war, was a place of charm but hardship, anxiously asserting its neutrality as Britain and Europe burned. The political and economic crisis of the Second World War not only provided the acid
often conflated by speakers from political platform and pulpit alike, the essential distinction between spiritual and temporal authority was to lead Catholic intellectuals to point to the theological loopholes in the state’s version of moral economy. Noticeably, this questioning spirit took hold in the latter years of the Emergency, as the supply situation began 06_Bryce_Ch-6.indd 117 10/29/2013 7:06:38 AM MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 10/29/2013, SPi 118 Ireland during the Second World War to look somewhat healthier. The theologian E.J. Hegarty, for example
apex of coalescence between church and 08_Bryce_Ch-8.indd 153 10/29/2013 7:06:21 AM MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 10/29/2013, SPi 154 Ireland during the Second World War state on this issue came in an extraordinary crossing of the boundary between church and state later in the Emergency when the Mayo county surveyor, Fianna Fáil’s Seán Flanagan, himself issued a ‘pastoral letter’ to be read at all churches in the county calling for a ban on emigration so that turf would be saved.6 Compared with the other neutral Catholic states, the closeness of Fianna Fáil and
Memories past, present and future
rethinking memory as acts of remembrance defined by social frameworks anchored in the nation-state. He proposes instead a fluid model of memory networks that allow multiple and multi-layered points of contact between past events to resurface. As Rothberg asserts, ‘memory emerges from unexpected, multidirectional encounters – encounters between diverse pasts and a conflictual present, to be sure, but also between different agents or catalysts of memory’.2 In this book, memories of the Second World War have been examined via encounters with crime fiction, a
Mapping French memories of the Second World War
Introduction Mapping French memories of the Second World War La valise la plus lourde dans les voyages est celle, invisible, qui renferme des souvenirs. From heroic war narratives of resistance to the collusions and compromises of collaboration and the human tragedy of wartime anti-Semitism, deportation and extermination, memories of the Second World War continue to resonate in French public consciousness. Even with the passage of time and the gradual disappearance of those who experienced events, the Second World War remains a ‘disunited memory’, one