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From campaign imagery to contemporary art
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

among political elites – calling for more assertive depictions of the country, which stressed its claim to be the birthplace of humanity, and its rejection of colonialism. Some of these have trodden dangerously close to nationalistic and overly grandiose depictions of the country, airbrushing the problems and ambiguities that many of its people confront daily. This chapter explores the delicate path between these two extremes that is navigated by a growing number of artists working in Ethiopia, part of a lively art scene centred on the capital

in Images of Africa
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Creation, negotiation and subversion

This book is about images of Africa; who creates them, how they are manipulated, and what the effects are for African actors and their relationships in the wider world. While the role of image in international politics is taken seriously by practitioners and academics, no one has yet produced a systematic account of the particularly important role it plays in the relationships between Africa and the wider world. This book seeks to do this by focusing on the politics of image and Africa, broadly defined to encompass the way political elites, media organisations and individual writers and artists together construct and project images of the continent. The book explores the dynamic processes of image creation in an imaginative way. First, it brings together different disciplinary approaches. Second, it draws on experiences of a wide range of actors and forms of image, including central governments, traditional authorities, journalists, individual artists and authors. Finally, the book brings together ten researchers currently engaged in fieldwork-based research across Africa who together present an empirically rich, fresh take on an important topic.

Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Representations of the body in South African fiction and film
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

of the suffering (heterosexual) male body and films such as District 9 (2009) can also be read as a dystopian depiction of a future South Africa. All four examples, two literary texts and two feature films, provide prolonged contemplative spaces in which to consider subjectivity and the other, and how the representation and description of the external body can be counterbalanced in art, literary and filmic narrative. In previous work ( Attree, 2007 ) I have traced the development of representations of HIV/AIDS in literature in South African

in Images of Africa
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A relational approach
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

interested in exploring ideas of image in art and how these can be brought to bear on an understanding of image in politics. I do this, first, by discussing various ideas about image, from maps to brands and masks. Second, I draw on the works of Achille Mbembe and Jean-François Bayart which address the complex juxtaposition of image between those it represents and those who consume it within political relationships. Third, I discuss these ideas in relation to a piece of sculpture, Scramble for Africa by Yinka Shonibare. This depiction of the Berlin Conference establishes

in Images of Africa

dismissed (Russell 1958: 844). Instead, the British proposal was adopted, subsequently becoming Art. 4(1) UN Charter. Requirements for membership were spelled out as statehood, acceptance of the obligations of the Charter, as well as the ability and willingness to carry out those obligations. Finally, the key to qualify for membership was the above-mentioned requirement for states to be peace-loving, a description fairly apt considering the aims of the organisation were to secure peace by foregoing war (see Simma 2002: 177–184). 3 Adopting this criterion was to allow

in The United Nations democracy agenda
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important to understand the cues, references, omissions, emphases and other such strategies which together make up an exhibition’s treatment of time and space (Yamaguchi 1991 , 61). For instance, following a didactic pattern which can be traced to the Louvre in Paris, many art galleries organise paintings chronologically and group them into period rooms according to a widely recognised canon of ‘great civilisations’. Historical

in Soldered states
Towards interpretive pluralism

must be presented in order to defend the usage of a diverse range of sources such as literature and art. Nevertheless, stories of violence cannot be understood effectively without taking the 23 Contemporary violence artistic as an important point of departure. The argument becomes, in a very general sense, that literature allows insight into the transformation of violence from the Western discourse of progressive, technologised and material warfare – to violence which is not stripped of its narrative features. Here, we may turn to the work of novelist and literary

in Contemporary violence

be in ‘peace and amity’ under the terms of this treaty, the English were granted access to Turkish ports and assigned the same ‘privileges’ that ‘had been granted to the French, the Venetians, or any other Christian nation whatever, whose king was in peace and friendship with the Porte’ (art. XVIII). This treaty also shows that the term ‘friendship’, when applied to a specific state of affairs, could combine contract-related accounts and value-ascribing proclamations, thereby making the very contract of friendship something that in itself was worthy of commendation

in Friendship among nations
The honour of public service

member of the Republican dominated Massachusetts legislature, representing the working-class immigrant neighbourhoods in North Cambridge. Tip relished the crucible that was Boston politics: mobilising support among his constituents for New Deal policies; servicing the people in his area; the thrust and parry of political debate and negotiations; the collegiality of his fellow legislators. An ardent partisan for Democratic principles, he nevertheless understood that politics was the art of compromise and that good governance required you to work with others who might

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century