An archaeology of Elizabethan Ireland

This book examines life in the leading province of Elizabeth I's nascent empire. It shows how an Ireland of colonising English farmers and displaced Irish ‘savages’ were ruled by an imported Protestant elite from their fortified manors and medieval castles. The book displays how a generation of English ‘adventurers’ including such influential intellectual and political figures as Spenser and Ralegh, tried to create a new kind of England, one that gave full opportunity to their Renaissance tastes and ambitions. Based on decades of research, it details how archaeology had revealed the traces of a short-lived, but significant, culture that has, until now, been eclipsed in ideological conflicts between Tudor queens, Hapsburg hegemony and native Irish traditions.

5 The archaeology of Kilcolman Castle We are informed that at Kilcolman, the seat of this Seignory, there was a fair stone house built by Edmund Spencer [sic], which was utterly destroyed in the late wars; that the same, being re-edified, was lately consumed by fire. Since which time a convenient English house is built in the place thereof. Survey of the Plantation of Munster, 16221 The Elizabethan court poet Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queene and colonial officer in County Cork, resided at Kilcolman Castle from around 1588 to October 1598, shortly

in Castles and Colonists

6 Spenserian architecture in Ireland Alas all the Castles I have, are built with ayre, thou know’st. Ben Jonson, 16051 Ben Jonson’s comedy Eastward Ho reveals how the early seventeenth century still valued castles as important social possessions. The claim by an impecunious Sir Petronell to have a castle and estate, more than his title, attracted the social-climbing daughter of the rich goldsmith Touchstone. For purely military purposes, castles had become obsolete with successful French siege artillery in Normandy and Gascony nearly 200 years earlier. During

in Castles and Colonists

4 The oratory of Barbara Castle David S. Moon Introduction: ‘battling’ Barbara Reporting on Tony Blair’s speech to the 1999 Confederation of British Industry (CBI) conference, Guardian sketch writer Simon Hoggart (1999) gave a typically snarky description of the speechifying of the then prime minister, or as he called him, ‘our very own Big Brother’: The Big Brother smiles a lot in a self deprecating kind of way. He uses ‘um’ and ‘well’ as a rhetorical device, to convince us he’s not reading out a prepared text, but needs to pause to work out exactly what he

in Labour orators from Bevan to Miliband
Sir Walter Scott and the Hudson River School of Painting

This essay examines the influence of Sir Walter Scott‘s historical romances on the artists of the Hudson River School of American landscape painting. Scotts writings inspired paintings of medieval castles, fictional and actual, as well as scenery related to Scott‘s life and literary works. Many American artists visited these sites first-hand and painted or sketched them, providing a visual record of the tourist experience of Great Britain.That so many American artists engaged in painting castles suggests the paradoxical nature of American culture in the nineteenth century, when commentators clamored for a uniquely American culture, even while American authors and artists copied or borrowed from European culture. Castles function as perhaps the ultimate European signifier in otherwise generalized landscapes. This essay argues that those American artists who included castles in the landscape gave American culture a modicum of legitimacy in an era of rising American nationalism.

Gothic Studies

M1206 MAGUIRE TEXT.qxp:Andy Q7 17/3/08 08:50 Page 51 2 Dublin Castle in crisis, 1918–21 Introduction        created new pressures on the civil service in Britain. The government, alarmed at the rise in numbers of civil servants created by wartime demands on the State, was determined to reduce its size and cost. The civil servants focused on organising to resist the Treasury’s attempt to reassert control of numbers and pay. An arbitration system, the Whitley Councils, that acted as a powerful incentive to organisation, was no sooner

in The civil service and the revolution in Ireland, 1912–38

:04 88 Castles and Colonists Figure 4.1  Late or post-medieval town-houses in Kilmallock, Co. Limerick. houses undoubtedly remain behind later facades, as smaller-scale houses at Kilmallock suggest, but Elizabethan settlers in Munster were planted on the Earl of Desmond’s escheated rural lands, and few would have had urban homes as well (see Figure 4.1). An exception is the large, freestanding residence ‘Myrtle Grove’, sited in Youghal close to the medieval church of St Mary’s.7 Long ascribed to Sir Walter Raleigh, this building has multiple gables, clustered

in Castles and Colonists
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of settlements, the activities taking place within them, and the functions these sites fulfilled. The first hundred years of proto-colonial activities divide historically into thirds. The first period (1540–75) witnessed Protector Somerset’s aggressive moves in Ireland MUP_Klingelhofer_04_Ch3.indd 61 10/08/2010 12:02 Castles and Colonists 62 and Scotland, Mary’s unwise entanglement in Hapsburg policy and the subsequent loss of Calais, and Elizabeth’s venturing beyond the cautious, county-building Irish policy of her predecessor to approve several overly

in Castles and Colonists
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part of Elizabeth’s ‘kingdome [of] Faery land’, perhaps as a distant province. In any case, ten years after the meeting in Munster between Raleigh and Spenser that led to the latter’s visit to Elizabeth’s court and the printing of the first part of The Faerie Queene, Spenser’s home, his MUP_Klingelhofer_02_Ch1.indd 1 10/08/2010 11:59 2 Castles and Colonists authority, and his dreams were ‘ashes’, and Ireland only a ‘wretched realme’. At the end of Elizabeth’s reign the Munster settlement was indeed in ruins, a failure like all the other colonial ‘plantings’ or

in Castles and Colonists
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households in a mixed farming regime that exported dairy products, wool, and hides. Some settlers would have been MUP_Klingelhofer_08_Ch7.indd 161 10/08/2010 12:05 162 Castles and Colonists involved in the highly profitable timber industry (which sold barrel staves to Spain) and attempts at iron working. Archaeology demonstrates their trade with the West Country ports, bringing them English goods like the serviceable Devonshire pottery as well as items from the C ­ ontinent like Iberian oil jars or Rhenish beer jugs. Outside the villages, in the shadow of the great

in Castles and Colonists