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Edited by: Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

For women writers, the decades of the English Civil War were of special importance. This book presents a complex and rewarding poetic culture that is both uniquely women-centred and integrally connected to the male canonical poetry. It brings together extensive selections of poetry by the five most prolific and prominent women poets of the English Civil War: Anne Bradstreet, Hester Pulter, Margaret Cavendish, Katherine Philips, and Lucy Hutchinson. All these five women were attracting new and concerted attention as poets by seventeenth-century women. Bradstreet's poems first appeared in The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America, and the later volume of Several Poemsincluded revised texts of those poems and several new ones. Each version of the poems spoke more directly on the context of the English Civil War. Pulter's poems construe Broadfield as a place of unwelcome isolation: she describes herself as 'shut up in a country grange', 'tied to one habitation', and 'buried, thus, alive'. Philips's poetry was first printed in 1664, her state-political poems, on members of the royal family and events of the Civil War, Interregnum, and Restoration, suggest Philips as a poet writing on matters of political significance. Cavendish's two major editions of Poems and Fancies in 1653 and 1664 each have strongly competing claims both to textual authority and to the more resonant political moment. Across poetry and prose, print and manuscript, Hutchinson's writing bears the marks of her fervent hostility to corrupt rulers and her remarkably broad education, adventurous reading habits, and energetic intellect.

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Civil wars in Georgia

Corruption breeds violence

Series:

Pavel K. Baev

7 Civil wars in Georgia: corruption breeds violence Pavel K. Baev Introduction    incredibly rich and uniquely complicated case for the analysis of modern civil wars. It is a newly independent state that appeared with the collapse of the USSR, but it also has a long history of statehood. It is a relatively small state, but it occupies a key geopolitical crossroads which has acquired strategic importance with the new development of hydrocarbon resources in the Caspian area. Its population is small and declining but the ethnic composition, cultural

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Edited by: Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

minor Cavalier poet himself and a patron of poets such as Ben Jonson, some of whose works were performed at the Cavendish estate before the wars. William already fostered writing in the women of the family as his daughters from his first marriage, Jane Cavendish and Elizabeth Brackley, were also poets. Margaret’s young married life was dominated, though, by the Civil War. She and her husband fled to continental Europe after his defeat at Marston Moor, and her brother Charles was executed in 1648 after the siege of Colchester (Cavendish wrote an elegy on her brother

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Edited by: Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

Introduction Women poets of the English Civil War This anthology brings together extensive selections of poetry by the five most prolific and prominent women poets of the English Civil War: Anne Bradstreet, Hester Pulter, Margaret Cavendish, Katherine Philips, and Lucy Hutchinson. Some of these women are more familiar to students and teachers than others. Katherine Philips and Margaret Cavendish have enjoyed fame (or endured notoriety) as women poets since the first publication of their work in the 1650s and 1660s, and brief selections of their poems have

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Edited by: Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

in their spelling and punctuation, including capitalisation and the use of i/j and u/v. The layout of lines and stanzas has been regularised. Annotations on the page are explanatory, being designed to facilitate an informed understanding of the poems. More specialised textual notes are found here at the back of the volume. 317 Women poets of the English Civil War While the texts in this anthology are modernised, we have not abandoned an interest in the poems’ conditions of production and in the contexts in which they originally occurred. Each set of poems is

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Edited by: Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

first in Newtowne (now Cambridge), and later in Ipswich and then North Andover, Massachusetts. Thomas Dudley, whose house at Newtowne reputedly contained a library of eight hundred books, rapidly became the colony’s deputy governor. He served for several years in prominent public positions, including posts as deputy governor and 29 Women poets of the English Civil War governor of the colony. So, too, did Simon Bradstreet, and both men were influential in the establishment of Harvard College. The first of Bradstreet’s eight children was born in Newtowne in 1632, and

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recounts in detail her husband’s actions through civil war and her version of its causes. John Hutchinson spent much time and thought over his decision to sign Charles I’s death warrant. The couple spent the 1650s mostly at the Owthorpe estate, managing the land and property, and it was probably at this time that Hutchinson wrote much of her poetry, including her version of Lucretius’ Epicurean poem De rerum natura, which was one of the first translations into English of this radical and influential work. This was not a time of retreat from politics, however, as shown by

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Edited by: Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

) chart the sorry fortunes of the royalist cause during the last years of the Civil War, and her emblems articulate a stance of devout fortitude against the conditions of the English republic. Likely to have been composed in the 1650s, these emblems are nominally addressed to her children as didactic or advice pieces. Like 89 Women poets of the English Civil War her occasional and devotional poems, however, the emblems are more broadly addressed to an imagined community of royalist readers. In her poems, Pulter construes Broadfield as a place of unwelcome isolation

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Zahira Araguete-Toribio

This article considers how the reburial and commemoration of the human remains of the Republican defeated during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) is affected by the social, scientific and political context in which the exhumations occur. Focusing on a particular case in the southwestern region of Extremadura, it considers how civil society groups administer reburial acts when a positive identification through DNA typing cannot be attained. In so doing, the article examines how disparate desires and memories come together in collective reburial of partially individuated human remains.

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Ian Atherton

Battlefields, burials and the English Civil Wars Chapter 1 Battlefields, burials and the English Civil Wars Ian Atherton T he idea that ‘military care’ extends beyond death to the treatment of the war dead is not new, though the forms it has taken have varied over time. Roger Boyle’s 1677 military treatise advised a victorious general to look after the wounded and prisoners, and see ‘his Dead honourably buried’. Similar ideas can be found in a number of sixteenth-century military manuals, and can be traced back at least as far as the Graeco-Roman world.1