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The evolving relationship between infection and length of stay in antibiotic-era hospitals
Sally Sheard

key roles in these developments because of the significant and increasing impact of HAIs on hospital costs, or of the role of economists at national policymaking levels. 3 To present the history of hospital infection control, or wider AMR, as the result of scientific discovery, or episodic crisis, is naïve, but understandable, if one draws primarily on medical and/or scientific primary literature. 4 This is literature often produced or co-produced by those whose reputations were built upon it – especially the microbiologists, clinicians and epidemiologists

in Germs and governance
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Lieutenancy finance
Neil Younger

Chapter 5 . The costs of war Lieutenancy finance A s we have seen, the work of the lieutenancies grew rapidly during the Elizabethan wars into many areas of activity, many of them very expensive. The issue of local finance is perhaps the most neglected aspect of the impact of war on the Elizabethan state; no county historian has addressed it fully, which is particularly striking given the very large amounts of money concerned.1 This chapter aims to fill this gap, looking, firstly, at how much money was raised, when and why; secondly, at how this was done; and

in War and politics in the Elizabethan counties
John Cullinan
Seán Lyons

4 The private economic costs of adult disability John Cullinan and Seán Lyons Introduction There has been a protracted debate in Ireland concerning the possible ­introduction of a ‘cost of disability payment’, a cash payment that takes into account the extra and unavoidable expenditures that are incurred by ­individuals with a disability and their families. The importance of this issue has been acknowledged by, amongst others, the Commission on the Status of Disabilities in Ireland and the United Nations, since addressing the extra economic costs of disability

in The economics of disability
Aoife Callan

9 The costs of community living for people with intellectual disabilities Aoife Callan Introduction International trends favouring greater presence in the community on the part of adults with intellectual disability have strengthened in recent years (Mansell et al., 2007; NDA, 2008). Thus far, this process of ‘deinstitutionalisation’ is at varying degrees of progress across developed countries. In the United States, for example, the population of people with intellectual disabilities living in public institutions peaked at 194,650 in 1967; by 2004, this number

in The economics of disability
Carol Helmstadter

economy, which had seemed to be booming in 1854, was suffering badly from the war effort. Trade diminished and, with 310,000 men drafted into the army, the agrarian workforce was hard hit, resulting in food shortages in the cities. By contrast, the flourishing British economy was able and prepared to pay for expensive sanitary and medical improvements as well as all the other costs of the war. In 1853 the British government spent £15.3 million on its army and navy, or 27.7 percent of the central government’s budget including debt interest. In 1856 the cost of the armed

in Beyond Nightingale
Is There Really No Place Like Home?
Marco Cucco

The outsourcing of film shoots has long been adopted by US producers to cut costs and improve box-office performance. According to the academic literature, outsourcing is exploited mainly for low- and middle-budget films, but this article aims to demonstrate that blockbusters are also migrating towards other states and countries to take part in an even more competitive film location market. It investigates 165 blockbusters released between 2003 and 2013. The collected data show that blockbuster shoots are not an exclusive to California, but are re-drawing the map of film production in favour of an even more polycentric and polyglot audiovisual panorama.

Film Studies
Fabrice Weissman

and criminal penalties incurred by kidnappers. 8 In our opinion, these objectives are completely valid for aid organisations. All, however, require a minimum level of internal and public transparency concerning the abduction of humanitarian workers, which means breaking the code of silence about past cases. It is impossible to increase the political costs of aid-worker abductions without starting to publicly acknowledge their

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings
Lauren Harris

posited that authoritarian regimes can pass the costs of coping with sanctions impacts on to their people ( Haggard and Noland, 2017 : 6), which informs Pyongyang’s ability to endure sanctions through repression for average citizens and rewards for the elite ( Peksen, 2016 ). Past research has considered sanctions against the DPRK from a number of perspectives, including political economy ( Frank, 2006 ; Haggard and Noland, 2010 ), international trade ( Noland, 2009 ), economic statecraft ( Haggard and Noland, 2017 ), US policy ( Stanton et al. , 2017 ) and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lisette R. Robles

such support mechanisms. 6 Physical and social costs contribute to the indecisiveness in seeking help from gender-specific violence and persecution. These costs are weighed against and are influenced by the individuals and institutions with whom the survivors engage and interact while in displacement. The diaspora engagements, in different spheres, support survival, coping and even prosperity under conflict conditions ( Van Hear, 2014 : 183). And in the specific need to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Rainer Schlösser, Spokesperson of the Association of the Red Cross Museums in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der deutschen Rotkreuz-Museen)
Sönke Kunkel

films and interviews. We also have a station where visitors can listen to original records recorded by German soldiers to send their wishes home during World War II. You certainly need those kinds of things, but you have to be aware that they do have their own problems: the media equipment may stop working, it may break down, and then you have to replace it, which means it creates costs that you have to refinance. SK: How do you decide what objects you put on display? RS: The first criterion is whether an object fits with the main themes of our museum: the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs