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British and Irish diasporas

Societies, cultures and ideologies

Edited by: Donald M. MacRaild, Tanja Bueltmann and J.C.D. Clark

Migrations of people, ideas, beliefs and cultures have closely shaped relations between the nations of the British and Irish Isles. In part this was the result of Anglo-imperialism, which expanded from a heartland around London and the South of England, first, then through the ‘Celtic fringe’, creating hybrid peoples who were both Irish and British, before spreading across the globe. At times, Catholics of both islands were exiled from this narrative of nation-building. Political pressures, economic opportunities, a spirit of adventure and sometimes force, spurred the creation of multiple diasporas from the British and Irish Isles. This book brings together a range of leading scholars who explore the origins, varieties and extent of these diasporas.

Wherever Britons and the Irish went, they created new identities as neo-Britons, neo-Angles, neo-Irish, neo-Scots: persons who were colonials, new nationals, and yet still linked to their old country and home nations. British and Irish emigrants also perpetuated elements of their distinctive national cultures in music, literature, saints’ days and broader, diffuse interactions with fellow nationals.

These especially commissioned essays explore processes of diaspora-formation from the English Catholic exiles of the sixteenth century, through the ‘Wild Geese’, Jacobites, traders and servants of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to the modern colonising diasporas associated with the modern age of mass migration.

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Women and Irish diaspora identities

Theories, concepts and new perspectives

Edited by: D. A. J. MacPherson and Mary J. Hickman

Bringing together leading authorities on Irish women and migration, this book offers a significant reassessment of the place of women in the Irish diaspora. It demonstrates the important role played by women in the construction of Irish diasporic identities, comparing Irish women's experience in Britain, Canada , New Zealand and the United States. The book considers how the Catholic Church could be a focal point for women's Irish identity in Britain. It examines how members of the Ladies' Orange Benevolent Association (LOBA) maintained a sense of Irish Protestant identity, focused on their associational life in female Orange lodges. The book offers a lens on Irish society, and on countries where they settled, and considerable scope for comparative analysis of the impact of different cultures and societies on women's lives. It reviews key debates in Transnational Studies (TS) and Diaspora Studies (DS) before discussing the particular contribution of DS in framing 1990s study of migrant and non-migrant Irish women. Feminist and queer theory scholarship in Irish DS has begun to address the gender and sexual politics of diaspora by attending to the dynamics of boundary expansion, queering and dissolution. The book suggests that religion can be both a 'bright' and a 'blurry' boundary, while examining how religious identities intersect with ethnicity and gender. It also includes the significance of the categories of gender and generation, and their intersection with ethnicity in the context of the official London St Patrick's Day Festival.

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Reconceptualising diaspora

Religion, persecution and identity in Britain and Ireland, 1558–1794

J.C.D. Clark

1 Reconceptualising diaspora: religion, persecution and identity in Britain and Ireland, 1558–1794 J.C.D. Clark The subject revealed In 1743 was published, in the Austrian Netherlands, a small book of Christian devotion. It was a work in a penitential, ascetic and contemplative spiritual idiom that has recently been associated with the remarkable revival of French monasticism during the early seventeenth-century wars of religion, an idiom that has also been held to have been supported especially by French elite and royalist families.1 So far, it was not unusual

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The English diaspora in North America

Migration, ethnicity and association, 1730s–1950s

Tanja Bueltmann and Donald M. MacRaild

From the early eighteenth century, a vibrant English associational culture emerged that was, by many measures, ethnic in character. English ethnic organisations spread across North America from east to west, and from north to south, later becoming a truly global phenomenon when reaching Australasia in the later nineteenth century. This books charts the nature, extent and character of these developments. It explores the main activities of English ethnic societies, including their charitable work; collective mutual aid; their national celebration; their expressions of imperial and monarchical devotion; and the extent to which they evinced transnational communication with the homeland and with English immigrants in other territories. The English demonstrated and English people abroad demonstrated and experienced competitive and sometimes conflictual ethnic character, and so the discussion also uncovers aspects of enmity towards an Irish immigrant community, especially in the US, whose increasingly political sense of community brought them into bitter dispute with English immigrants whom they soon outnumbered. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the extent of English ethnic associational culture in North America was such that it resonated within England herself, resulting in the formation of a central organization designed to coordinate the promotion of English culture. This was the Royal Society of St George. Ultimately, the book documents that the English expressed their identity through processes of associating, mutualism and self-expression that were, by any measure, both ethnic and diasporic in character. The English Diaspora is based on a very large amount of untapped primary materials from archives in the United States, Canada, and the UK relating to specific locations such as New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Toronto, Ottawa, and Kingston, and London. Thousands of newspaper articles have been trawled. Several long runs of English associational periodicals have been garnered and utilized. Comparative and transnational perspectives beyond the US and Canada are enabled by the discovery of manuscript materials and periodicals relating to the Royal Society of St George.

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Donald M. MacRaild and Philip Payton

7 The Welsh diaspora Donald M. MacRaild and Philip Payton Introduction The Welsh diaspora was a miniature version of the wider European mass migration, but it has received much less attention from historians of the British Empire than it should have.1 A small country whose emigrant population was dwarfed by that of the Irish, English, German or Scots, the Welsh nevertheless produced significant population outflows conditioned by industrial modernisation and improved communications and transport. Moreover, the Welsh also colonised certain places with particular

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Mary E. Daly

M&H 01_Tonra 01 08/04/2014 07:13 Page 17 1 Irish women and the diaspora: why they matter Mary E. Daly Resolving to do something to better the circumstances of her family, the young Irish girl leaves her home for America. There she goes into service, or engages in some kind of feminine employment. The object she has in view – the same for which she left her home and ventured to a strange country – protects her from all danger, especially to her character: that object, her dream by day and night, is the welfare of her family, whom she is determined, if possible

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Donald M. MacRaild

4 An imperial, utopian and ‘visible’ diaspora: the English since 1800 Donald M. MacRaild During one of those grand tours of the empire, which became popular among wealthy Victorians, the novelist and essayist, Anthony Trollope made some sharp observations on the effect distance had on patriotism. Writing in 1873, Trollope stated that the New Zealander, descendant of the English, is the most ‘John Bullish’ and ‘admits the supremacy of England to every place in the world, only he is more English than any Englishman’.1 Trollope’s point aligned with the oft

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Irish Protestant women and diaspora

Orangewomen in Canada, c. 1890–1930

D. A. J. MacPherson

M&H 09_Tonra 01 08/04/2014 07:22 Page 168 9 Irish Protestant women and diaspora: Orangewomen in Canada, c. 1890–1930 D. A. J. MacPherson Far away across the ocean Is the green land of my birth; There my thoughts are turning ever To the dearest place on earth. Are the fields as green, I wonder, As they were in days of yore When I played in happy childhood By the Blue Atlantic shore?1 Writing in the pages of the Toronto Sentinel, the self-styled ‘voice’ of Orangeism in Canada, Mrs Charles E. Potter from Saskatoon, articulated the complex relationship with

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A. James Hammerton

On the global stage the British diaspora, proportionate to its population, remains one of the largest. This book is the first social history to explore experiences of British emigrants from the peak years of the 1960s to the emigration resurgence of the turn of the twentieth century. It explores migrant experiences in Australia, Canada and New Zealand alongside other countries. The book charts the gradual reinvention of the 'British diaspora' from a postwar migration of austerity to a modern migration of prosperity. It is divided into two parts. First part presents a decade-by-decade chronology of changes in migration patterns and experience, progressing gradually from the postwar migration of austerity to a more discretionary mobility of affluence. It discusses 'pioneers of modern mobility'; the 1970s rise in non-white migration and the decline of British privilege in the old Commonwealth countries of white settlement; 'Thatcher's refugees' and cosmopolitanism and 'lifestyle' migration. Second part shifts from a chronological to a thematic focus, by drilling down into some of the more prominent themes encountered. It explores the interplay of patterns of change and continuity in the migrant careers of skilled workers, trade unionists, professionals and mobile academics. The push and pull of private life, migration to transform a way of life, and migrant and return experiences discussed highlight the underlying theme of continuity amidst change. The long process of change from the 1960s to patterns of discretionary, treechange and nomadic migration became more common practice from the end of the twentieth century.

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Breda Gray

M&H 02_Tonra 01 08/04/2014 07:14 Page 34 2 Thinking through Transnational Studies, Diaspora Studies and gender Breda Gray The 1990s saw a proliferation of studies across disciplines in the humanities and social sciences variously invoking the terms transnational(ism) and diaspora in accounting for migration and associated phenomena including transgenerational ethnic identities and cross-border practices. These terms are deployed most often as counterpoints to the assimilation model of immigrant incorporation and the container model of the nation-state. As such