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The omnibus and urban culture in nineteenth-century Paris
Author: Masha Belenky

Engine of Modernity: The Omnibus and Urban Culture in Nineteenth-Century Paris examines the connection between public transportation and popular culture in nineteenth-century Paris through a focus on the omnibus - a horse-drawn vehicle for mass urban transport which enabled contact across lines of class and gender. A major advancement in urban locomotion, the omnibus generated innovations in social practices by compelling passengers of diverse backgrounds to interact within the vehicle’s close confines. Although the omnibus itself did not actually have an engine, its arrival on the streets of Paris and in the pages of popular literature acted as a motor for a fundamental cultural shift in how people thought about the city, its social life, and its artistic representations. At the intersection of literary criticism and cultural history, Engine of Modernity argues that for nineteenth-century French writers and artists, the omnibus was much more than a mode of transportation. It became a metaphor through which to explore evolving social dynamics of class and gender, meditate on the meaning of progress and change, and reflect on one’s own literary and artistic practices.

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The Victorian army and its use of railways

The railway represented one of pivotal technological developments of the nineteenth century. This book reviews the way in which the British army exploited the potential of railways from the 'dawn of the railway age' to the outbreak of the First World War. It explores the use of railways when the army was acting in aid of the civil power, as a factor in the planning for home defence, and as an increasingly efficient means of supporting the army on active service. If the early Victorian army welcomed railways as an ancillary means of responding to domestic emergencies, it encountered similar challenges in fulfilling its role in home defence. Over nearly thirty years from the Crimean War to the intervention in Egypt, the Victorian army both experimented with railways and observed the employment of railways. The Sudan Military Railway was regarded as 'astounding in conception'. The book reveals that the army monitored the use of railways in foreign wars, experimented in the use of railways within rear areas, designed and built railways for strategic defence in India, and later exploited railways to transform the prospects of military success in the Sudan and South Africa. The Victorian army demonstrated a capacity to integrate the railway into its logistic planning, to grasp the imperative of operational management, and to envisage it as a key element in mobilisation and strategic planning.

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The Court Sermons of James II
William Gibson

This article considers the sermons preached by royal chaplains at the court of James II and the organisation of the chapel royal by James as a Catholic organisation. In doing so, it addresses the question of where James’s assurance and certainty came from that he was ruling as God wished him to do. The evidence presented here is that James organised his Catholic chapel royal to be a conscious source of guidance and support. His chaplains reciprocated by addressing him as a Catholic king whose duty was to bring to heel a recalcitrant and stubborn people. His chaplains used historical precedent and theological argument to press on James his determination to bring his Protestant subjects to obedience. This is a study of the Catholic milieu of James’s court and of the theological impetus behind his rule.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Paul Currion

have. This is not a problem until a situation arises which presents an existential threat and a paradigm shift is required purely for survival, which was of course the rationale that the original ALNAP study gave for innovation. This rationale draws on the idea of creative destruction, the phrase coined by Joseph Schumpeter to describe how the ‘fundamental impulse that sets and keeps the capitalist engine in motion comes from the new consumers’ goods, the new methods of production or transportation

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

crowd-sourced live maps, which provided close to real-time information about the location of injured persons and infrastructure damage ( Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, 2011 ; Munro, 2013 ). To amplify the capacity for translation, a group from Microsoft, Stanford University and Carnegie Mellon University also created a Machine Translation (MT – automatic, computer translation) engine from Creole to English ( Lewis et al. , 2011 ). These initiatives

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy and Victoria Russell

smugglers, and that the incident was evidence of ‘smuggling migrants directly on an NGO maritime vessel’. Meanwhile, when sought for his side of the story, the captain of the Minden claimed that the boat appeared to be ‘engine fishers’, locals who often appear around rescues to salvage the engines from stranded vessels ( Campbell, 2017 ). Two other accusations originated from a right-wing anti-immigrant foundation in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Bert Ingelaere

the popularisation or decentralisation of justice. The gacaca courts procedure was loosely modelled on the traditional gacaca with lay persons presiding as judges and the (active) involvement of the entire adult population as a ‘General Assembly’. Lay judges, the inyangamugayo or ‘persons of integrity’, were the engines of the gacaca process. In October 2001 over 250,000 inyangamugayo were elected ( Republic of Rwanda, 2001 ). 7 They were members of the general population, without legal training or experience, and they received a short training on the law

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Don Leggett

execution and the role of historical agents in building credibility into the ship’s vital systems, specifically the marine steam turbine. Charles Parsons, who designed the turbine in the closing decades of the nineteenth century, worked with his engineering and business associates to promote an engine that they claimed would surpass the reciprocating engine in coal consumption, simplicity, reliability and compactness.14 Proving that the turbine was capable of all that had been claimed for it was complicated and dependent on the networks that Fisher and Parsons had

in Shaping the Royal Navy
Sam Illingworth

had been working on his Difference Engine for over a decade. The purpose of this engine was to automatically compute values of polynomial functions, and it represented the first complete design for an automatic calculating engine. While the engine was yet to be finished (indeed it was never completed in Babbage’s lifetime, and was only fully constructed for the first time in the late twentieth century), a small section of it was in working order and could be used to demonstrate its principles. Shortly after the two met for the first time, Babbage invited Lovelace to

in A sonnet to science
Penny McCall Howard

I first met him, he proudly showed me a newspaper clipping about his experience of drifting on a large trawler for days without engine 90 90 90 Techniques and technologies power, battered by a storm well offshore from the Scottish mainland. I  went to see the small indoor swimming pool where his schoolmate had died and he had been pushed into the water, and to me it looked infinitely safer than the sea Alex worked on regularly. Alex directly associated immersion in water with the potential for a sudden and traumatic death. Yet, for over 20 years, Alex had

in Environment, labour and capitalism at sea