principles of hierarchy and authority. The church had always possessed its leaders and its followers; that was both a practical necessity and God’s plan. Both
had to be accommodated in permanent rules that would preserve the church
until the end of time. While this projection of episcopal leadership was to provoke opposition from some quarters, many reformers rose to the challenges
that it had identified by building on its platforms of hierarchy and reform. Leading theologians and reformers embarked on extended explorations of what
‘reform’ meant and how it could be
. Episcopal jurisdiction was, therefore, not directly derived from him.
Unlike the Council of Trent, the French theologian had no difficulty in confirming that bishops held their jurisdiction according to droit divin.52
Cardinal de Lorraine affirmed his faithfulness to this heritage when he
commented in 1563 that ‘I am French, nourished in the University of Paris,
which holds the authority of a council above the pope, and which censured as
heretics those who hold the contrary view.’53 Although he and his fellows were
fundamentally in favour of the Council of Trent,54 they
containing the pope and the episcopate and the
FATHERS, PASTORS AND KINGS
other housing the pope and the regulars. Jean-Pierre Camus certainly recognised the consequences of that possibility, and pointed it out to his fellow bishops in treatises that he wrote specifically to defend their authority. If the
regulars were exempt from episcopal jurisdiction in their hierarchical functions, he observed, then two fragmented hierarchies existed in the church.
That was an intolerable situation if the interests of ecclesiastical order and
they were needed. In 1804, when the congregation
SND: Book of the Instructions of Blessed Mère Julie (1909), p. 147.
SND: Règles et Constitutions des Soeurs de Notre-Dame (Namur: ),
article 3, ‘L’esprit des membres de l’Association, est un esprit de simplicité,
d’obéissance, de charité; et leur désir est de consacrer leurs soins aux pauvres des
lieux les plus abandonnés’.
Authority and governance
was founded, the status of women’s simple-vowed congregations was still
questioned. Some episcopal and clerical authorities considered these
Roman Catholic women's congregations are an enigma of nineteenth century social history. Over 10,000 women, establishing and managing significant Catholic educational, health care and social welfare institutions in England and Wales, have virtually disappeared from history. In nineteenth-century England, representations of women religious were ambiguous and contested from both within and without the convent. This book places women religious in the centre of nineteenth-century social history and reveals how religious activism shaped the identity of Catholic women religious. It is devoted to evolution of religious life and the early monastic life of the women. Catholic women were not pushed into becoming women religious. On the basis of their available options, they chose a path that best suited their personal, spiritual, economic and vocational needs. The postulancy and novitiate period formed a rite of passage that tested the vocation of each aspirant. The book explores the religious activism of women religious through their missionary identity and professional identity. The labour of these women was linked to their role as evangelisers. The book deals with the development of a congregation's corporate identity which brought together a disparate group of women under the banner of religious life. It looks specifically at class and ethnicity and the women who entered religious life, and identifies the source of authority for the congregation and the individual sister.
This book, written in honour of Mayke De Jong, offers twenty-five essays focused upon the importance of religion to Frankish politics. It deals with religious discourse and political polemic in studies that take up the themes of identity, and the creative deployment of the language of the Old Testament within Frankish society. The book explores how the use of ethnic rhetoric in a Christian context shaped medieval perceptions of community. It shows that the Carolingian way of dealing with the Adoptionist challenge was to allow a conversation between the Spanish bishops and their Frankish opponents to take place. Charlemagne's role in the Vita Alcuini as a guardian of orthodoxy who sought to settle a controversy by organising and supervising a theological debate was striking. The book also discusses the admonition of an abbot of Frankish origin who came from southern France and made his monastic career in southern Italy. It showcases three letter manuscripts that share certain features but are different in other aspects. The first manuscript is a collection of the Moral Letters from Seneca to his pupil Lucilius , Paris , BnF, lat. 8658A. The book demonstrates that the lists of amici, viventes et defuncti reflected how the royal monastery was interacting with ruling elites, at different levels, and how such interactions were an essential part of its identity. It also examines the context of Monte Cassino's fading into the background, in the conviction that both political and religious concerns were at play.
its instigators made significant and widely adopted contributions. While their primary
interest was the improvement of standards among the lower clergy, their teachings could not but influence contemporary conceptions of episcopalauthority
and hierarchical status. Ideas on episcopacy were disseminated in both oral
and written form, through informal conversation, oratory, correspondence and
reflections as well as through published texts. Obviously, bishops like Camus
and Godeau were in the best possible position to express their opinions on, for
. In this particular case, the canons justified their resistance to the bishop’s jurisdiction by
pointing to a papal bull of 1458 which, they claimed, exempted them from episcopal jurisdiction. When the bishops’ masons arrived to dispose of the altar, the
canons imprisoned them in the cathedral until Sourdis, in a grand gesture of
episcopalauthority, swept into the church, denounced the canons, released the
masons and personally oversaw the altar’s destruction.9
This episode was unusual, however, for two reasons. In the first place, the
chapter pointed to a papal
preferred to blame his ambitious and
deceitful servants and to lambaste them for their criminal attempts to undermine episcopal and ecclesiastical authority. Alternatively, they attacked the
state in abstract, carefully avoiding any suggestion that they might harbour treasonous sentiments. This was an attitude befitting an episcopate that played a
major role in the perpetuation of the theory of divine right; in fact, one of its
FATHERS, PASTORS AND KINGS
most famous members, Bishop Bossuet, produced the ultimate vindication of
sophisticated political and theological principles that shaped its
view of papal and episcopal power. In doing so, it quickly becomes apparent
that these Articles were not just a politically motivated betrayal of papal authority, but a legitimate articulation of the episcopate’s ideology of ecclesiastical
hierarchy and government.
Of course, the relationship between ideas and actions is complex and
difficult to unravel; for this reason, scholars, who prefer to examine either one
or the other, frequently ignore the symbiotic relationship linking them. Yet they
then tell only