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Contested identities

Catholic women religious in nineteenth-century England and Wales

Carmen M. Mangion

Roman Catholic women's congregations are an enigma of nineteenth century social history. Over 10,000 women, establishing and managing significant Catholic educational, health care and social welfare institutions in England and Wales, have virtually disappeared from history. In nineteenth-century England, representations of women religious were ambiguous and contested from both within and without the convent. This book places women religious in the centre of nineteenth-century social history and reveals how religious activism shaped the identity of Catholic women religious. It is devoted to evolution of religious life and the early monastic life of the women. Catholic women were not pushed into becoming women religious. On the basis of their available options, they chose a path that best suited their personal, spiritual, economic and vocational needs. The postulancy and novitiate period formed a rite of passage that tested the vocation of each aspirant. The book explores the religious activism of women religious through their missionary identity and professional identity. The labour of these women was linked to their role as evangelisers. The book deals with the development of a congregation's corporate identity which brought together a disparate group of women under the banner of religious life. It looks specifically at class and ethnicity and the women who entered religious life, and identifies the source of authority for the congregation and the individual sister.

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Sounding out the margins

Ethnicity and popular music in British cultural studies

Sean Campbell

cultural practitioners has tended to foreground questions of race and ethnicity, it has been almost axiomatic in cultural studies simply to overlook the particular immigrant background of the second-generation Irish, who Norquay_08_Ch7 117 22/3/02, 10:01 am 118 Cultural negotiations have instead been subsumed in an all-encompassing, and largely undefined, ‘white ethnicity’. Moreover, in a great deal of work on questions of race, ethnicity and popular music, second-generation Irish musicians have been recruited for a putative Anglo-Saxon ‘centre’ against which the

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Bronwen Walter

in domestic service and, in the case of Korea especially, for prostitution, and men for work in the construction industry. In each case the migrant ethnic group was indistinguishable from the majority M&H 07_Tonra 01 08/04/2014 07:19 Page 145 Irish women within and beyond the British Empire society in physical appearance, identified only by name (though often this was changed) and family background.65 This made it possible to ‘pass’, a strategy adopted by many Koreans to avoid punitive discrimination, but also by unknown numbers of the Irish in Britain. Koreans

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Panikos Panayi

state behaviour towards ethnic outsiders that were characteristic of twentieth-century Britain. The template was the Aliens Act of 1905 when an anti-alien campaign resulted in the passage of the cornerstone of all subsequent attempts to exclude ethnic groups with the ‘wrong’ credentials,9 most notably a series of Acts from the 1950s until the 1970s to limit black and Asian immigrants.10 From our perspective the closest parallel is the decision to introduce internment in June 1940. Although preparations had existed for mass incarceration before this time, the

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The scattered Irish


Patrick O’Leary

Department (PWD), the Irish personnel of which, along with two Irish viceroys, are the focus of attention in later parts of the book. The next chapter, the fourth, examines the social, religious, ethnic and educational backgrounds of Irish recruits to the three services and the reasons behind the remarkable increase in Irish recruitment beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. The last

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Finding a place for oneself

Processes of settlement in Denmark


Marianne Holm Pedersen

network was confined to Iraqi Shi‘a Muslim circles. In some ways, this may not seem surprising. A large number of migration studies have shown how migrants become part of ethnic communities in the migration destination (e.g. Al-Rasheed 1998; Shaw 1988; Werbner 1990). With a focus on ethnicity one might therefore suggest that women’s networks made up a form of continuity rooted in their ethno-religious backgrounds. However, by also exploring issues of social class and gender as they are played out in women’s lives and Danish society respectively, it becomes apparent that

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Irish Protestant women and diaspora

Orangewomen in Canada, c. 1890–1930

D. A. J. MacPherson

turbulence in Ireland following the establishment of the Free State. During the interwar period, Orangewomen in Canada came from a diverse set of backgrounds, encompassing both recent migrants from Ireland, Scotland, England and elsewhere in the British world with those who were from more long-standing Canadian families. While a Scottish identity and an interest in Canadian politics came to the fore in the LOBA during the 1920s, this chapter argues that an Irish Protestant ethnicity remained central to these women’s sense of identity. These Orangewomen embraced the

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Psychiatric admission in Ireland

The role of country of origin

Brendan D. Kelly

services. In particular, increased emphasis on the cultural competence of healthcare providers would be a good first step in recognising and addressing the differing health needs and practices of individuals from different ethnic groups and cultural backgrounds. DONNELLY 9780719099465 PRINT.indd 203 12/10/2015 15:59 204 Oversight of decision-­making References Amaddeo, F., Becker, T., Fioritti, A., Burti, L. and Tansella, M. (2007) ‘Reforms in community care: the balance between hospital and community-­based mental health care’, in M. Knapp, D. McDaid, E. Mossialos

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Debating Tudor policy in Ireland: The ‘reform’ treatises


David Heffernan

one of the sewers of the king’s chamber, Edmund Sexton, composed a number of tracts in the 1530s, the notorious archbishop of Cashel, Miler McGrath, wrote several treatises in the 1590s, while Francis Shane, an anglicised O’Farrell, prepared papers on military strategy during the Nine Years War.16 Other than these there are a handful of Gaelic Irish writers, notably Cormac MacBrian O’Connor and Turlough O’Brien.17 This, broadly speaking, was how the authorship of the ‘reform’ treatises broke down along ethnic lines. A more complicated issue is the station of the

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‘A real credit to Ireland, and to Dublin’

The scholarly achievements of Sir James Ware


Mark Empey

different ethnic and cultural backgrounds, which might in other circumstances prove to be insuperable obstacles to friendship and trust, it is clear that these could be overcome by their mutual devotion to the course of preserving Ireland’s rich medieval heritage. Whatever might be said about the divisive nature of Irish society in the seventeenth century, Ware’s extensive network suggests that such divisions were by no means impermeable. The passion Ware demonstrated in his scholarly endeavours interlinks with the second important observation about his book