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Religious culture and civic life in medieval northern Italy

Most people would agree that the hospital functions as one of the 'first duties of an organized society' as a public service for those members of the community who are in need. In the thirteenth century, hospitals represented a nexus of exchange between church officials, the community, the needy, and the pious or ambitious individual. This book presents a survey that offers an overview of the role of the hospital in affairs of the urban community, suggesting how changes within that community were reflected in the activities of the hospital. It locates the rise of the hospital movement in northern Italy within the context of the changing religious, social, and political environment of the city-states. The book introduces the hospital's central function in the distribution and administration of charity. It illustrates how the hospital and other charitable organizations played a role in the appropriation of power and influence by urban citizens. A comprehensive investigation of twelfth and thirteenth century hospitals' foundational charters follows. The book then delves into a detailed description of the physical plant of the hospital, the daily life of individuals, and rules and statutes followed by its members. It considers the social composition of donors, workers, and recipients of hospital services. Jurisdictional disputes among the city leaders, the community, individual religious orders, ecclesiastical authorities, and larger political forces. Finally, the book explores the process of consolidation and bureaucratization of hospitals in the fifteenth century and the emergence of state control over social services.

Abstract only
Sally Mayall Brasher

Once founded, by either bishop, pope, neighbourhood association, individual, or lay order, the hospital needed to be managed and staffed. As the model for charity in the eleventh and twelfth centuries was almost exclusively religious, these institutions were universally organized within some format of religious or semi-religious community that provided housing for staff and administrators as well as, patients, the poor, and pilgrims. However, the very nature of the independent hospital movement of the period was characterized by a wide

in Hospitals and charity
Carol Helmstadter

Introduction Anticipating a campaign in the spring and summer of 1855 and hence many more casualties, the War Department realized the medical department needed more doctors. Given the outcry over poor medical care, the government decided to recruit experienced civilian doctors rather than commissioning newly graduated surgeons. The civilian doctors would run their own hospitals and have complete control over the female nurses. Two civilian hospitals were established in Turkey, the first in Smyrna and the second

in Beyond Nightingale
Sally Mayall Brasher

The foundation of so many small community hospitals in northern Italy in the twelfth century was more than just a spontaneous, coincidental development; the phenomenon suggests a very specific moment in the history of the area. The impetus to house the sick, the poor, and pilgrims within the community with distinct specifications for the location of the institution, its construction, and management, gives us a very clear insight into the process of urbanization of the period as well as a localized portrait of civic engagement and

in Hospitals and charity
John Izod, Karl Magee, Kathryn Hannan, and Isabelle Gourdin-Sangouard

, while the worst Are full of passionate intensity. (W. B Yeats) 1 Introduction Britannia Hospital was written as a naked allegory for the state of the nation. The narrative weaves multiple strands into an extended lampoon in which a large cast all play caricatures. In near total disarray, the hospital is preparing to mark its

in Lindsay Anderson
Donnacha Seán Lucey

5 From workhouses to hospitals This chapter examines the role of the poor law in the delivery of healthcare and particularly hospital provision. It outlines how medical relief had become one of the primary functions of Irish workhouses by 1920. Furthermore, it explores attempts made during the early years of the Irish Free State to fully separate medical assistance from poor relief through case studies of Cork city and county Kerry. The relationship between local authority healthcare and the more prestigious voluntary sector is also examined. This chapter also

in The end of the Irish Poor Law?
History and context
Sally Mayall Brasher

The hospital movement in Europe arose out of a tradition of charity and religious life that originated in the earliest days of Christianity. The perception of who deserved charity and whose responsibility it was to provide such relief changed considerably by the twelfth century as the populations of cities grew and the ability of ecclesiastical institutions to serve them diminished. The perception of personal charity shifted from the idea of caritas to misericordia . Caritas , the term employed in the earlier Middle Ages, refers to

in Hospitals and charity
Sally Mayall Brasher

As much of the documentation for various medieval hospitals is fragmentary and obscure, it is difficult to reach broad conclusions regarding the administrative model, physical composition, or daily life of a hospital over the entire course of its existence. However, we do have ample documentation for a few hospitals that must serve anecdotally to illustrate the internal life of these communities. One such facility is Ospedale Brolo in Milan. It is well documented in the archives, primarily because it was located in the heart of the city

in Hospitals and charity
Michael Robinson

Introduction The UK's available bed space for the medical treatment of wounded servicemen amounted to 365,000 by the cessation of the First World War. Thirty-six affiliated auxiliary hospitals catered for war-related ailments in Ireland. 1 Voluntary charities and philanthropists ran numerous facilities, there was an expansion of existing military hospitals, building of new military hospitals, and the creation of military hospitals and wards within public institutions such as

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Humanity not democracy?
Martin Gorsky, John Mohan, and Tim Willis

Chapter 5 Hospital contribution and civil society: humanity not democracy? This chapter turns to the contributory schemes’ role as mediators of popular participation in health provision. Part of their self-image was as vehicles for patient involvement in hospital affairs, and they were subsequently admired as ‘democratic in origin and in self-government … a splendid way of showing how democracy can become an aristocracy of public service’.1 As such they offer a hitherto unexplored resource for learning about the nature of active citizenship, augmenting the work

in Mutualism and health care