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Since the 1970s, many academics and teachers have been taking the study of film out of Film Studies by producing curricula and critical literature hostile to notions of artistic endeavour and aesthetic value. Montage simply is the joining together of different elements of film in a variety of ways, between shots, within them, between sequences, within these. This book offers specific experiences of montage. Though there are clusters of experiences and practices that films share in common, each film is specific to itself. The book is led by that specificity towards these clusters and away from them then back to the films once more. Eadwaerd Muybridge's studies of human and animal locomotion consisted of photographed plates that reproduced bodies in movement in a sequence of still photographs he published in 1887. These reproductions, though sequential, were composed of intermittent, discontinuous immobile units, in effect, a linked series of snapshots. The game in Cahiers du cinéma is based on sixty-nine photographs that Kitano took of various subjects at different times and places, mostly in Japan, some in Africa. The notion and practices of the shot sequence were crucial for Pier Paolo Pasolini's formulations. The Kuleshov effect is the effect of desire. No shot in an Eisenstein film is ever complete because it reappears either analogically, or graphically, or in luminosity or by a contrast of beats and movements (the steps, the hammocks, descents, ascents). The book also discusses the works of David Wark Griffith, Eric Rohmer, and Alfred Hitchcock.

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scène and of editing with only a hair’s breadth between them, each serving the other and hardly distinguishable. ‘I dread editing’ (‘J’ai horreur du montage’), said Hawks. If a film is shot badly, if the mise en scène is poor, it would be evident at the stage of editing and no editing could then save a sequence. Hawks dreaded editing, not as an activity, but because it would reveal to him what had gone wrong in

in Montage
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of features relating to the organisation of time and of space dependent on procedures of montage and the composition of shots. Many of the shots are repeated so that at various points of what appears to be a natural progression the progression is reversed as surely as the mother who (momentarily) halts the downward movement of the Cossacks. The repetitions are interruptions (to action) but function as echoes of other

in Montage
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relatively whole and time can be given its due, the time of an event being simply the time of the shot, hence the length of takes with these new techniques (the opening of Welles’s Touch of Evil, for example, and the scene in the hotel lounge near the beginning of Visconti’s La Morte in Venezia). André Bazin would argue (rather too sweepingly) that such techniques rendered the real more fully than did montage and that rather

in Montage
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work of montage for him is essentially a choice of sequences not of shots. During editing Rivette is interested to discover what a film is saying by itself (par soi-même) rather than what he might have wanted it to say. Montage, for him, is a seeking out of affinities between different moments of a film that exist in themselves (en eux-mêmes ) and are there to be found and are the spirit and life of a film. It is more a matter of

in Montage
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addresses what has always been posed by the cinema in this regard and always posed newly, historically and not. Montage simply is the joining together of different elements of film in a variety of ways, between shots, within them, between sequences, within these. This book offers specific experiences of montage, not the application of a general model to specific films. For example, if continuity editing is shared by Ford and

in Montage

, and perhaps primarily, that the unity of the film will be dissolved where the filmic means employed (simultaneity, parallelism, alternation by means of its montage) will not be effaced by what they are intended to represent thus causing a sense of irresolution at the level of the form of the film and its representational purposes. If you like, the presence of the film might then come to dominate rather than serve the action

in Montage
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between them. Even if Griffith plays with the gaps between shots as he does in an alternating parallel montage of the two sisters separated from one another in Orphans of the Storm (tantalisingly close but terrifyingly far away) and in the last-minute-rescue, which is the penultimate sequence of the film, this parallelism is formed on the basis of a continuity. In a Griffith film, everything is noteworthy in the sense that everything you see

in Montage

finally become a single unified space (and time) as the parallel lines converge. In Intolerance, the counter-shot comes from a different universe. As the Klan rides to rescue those besieged in the cabin in The Birth of a Nation, the linkage between the shots that constitute the parallel and alternating montage are linked to each other by an internal logic ultimately justified by the conclusion of these scenes when victims

in Montage
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and alternating montage was not simply the product of a parallelism of events but of a play of appearance and disappearance, of a hide-and-seek between representation and what was represented, between images and the realities they brought to life and that they, necessarily and surely, left behind. If it is possible to detect a rhythm of movement (of waves, of persons, of leaves in the wind, of gestures) in a Lumière film and

in Montage