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Shaping custom
Kasey McCall-Smith

difficult. 31 The identification of customary international law is an imprecise legal inquiry. A number of International Court of Justice decisions have examined the two elements that together form a rule of customary law, State practice and opino juris ; 32 yet, across the decisions there are unspoken variables that are understood to influence the weight ascribed to each of these elements and it is acknowledged that the distinction between the two is, at best, a non sequitur oft repeated by international lawyers to validate their craft. 33 Nonetheless, the

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law
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Semantics of intellectual disability
Irina Metzler

,’ that is, with dulled wits, but not with none at all. A stolid person is one who in his stupor ( stupor ) is not moved by injustice, for he endures and does not avenge cruelty, and is not moved to grief by any dishonor. 247. Sluggish ( segnis ), that is, ‘without fire’ ( sine igni ), lacking native wit – for se- means ‘without’ ( sine ), as sedulus, sine dolo. … 248. Stupefied ( stupidus ), ‘rather often astounded ( stupere )’. (Stultus, hebetior corde, sicut quidam ait (Afran. 416): Ego me esse stultum existimo: fatuum esse non opino, id

in Fools and idiots?
Tom Betteridge

articulated in 1554. In one of his famous letters to Protector Somerset he argued: ‘Many co[m]monwealths haue continued without the bishop of Romes iurisdictio[n]: but without the true religio[n], and with such opino[n]s as Germany mainteined, no estate hath continued in the circuit of the world to us know[n] since christ came’ (‘Stephen Gardiner to the Lord Protector’, printed in John Foxe, Actes and Monuments (London: 1563), STC 11222, p. 733). 9 See G.R. Elton, Reform and Reformation: England 1509–1558 (London: 1977), chapter 17, and A.G. Dickens, The English Reformation

in Literature and politics in the English Reformation
Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

Mansione Cambio, carder Cecco, servant of Spinelloccio de’Tolomei Guido di Meo called Guido the Scumbag [ del feccioso ] Francesco, son of master Vanni of Opino Francesco Vannini, locksmith Niccolò di Goro, scabbard maker Bandino di Calvello, tailor from Arezzo Francesco di Chele di Baroccio, a wool manufacturer Lodovico di Guccino or the son of Lady Catelina Ser Tecco, master carpenter Francesco di

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe