This book is a story about the importance of stories in International Relations. It brings insights from Literary Studies and Narratology into IR and political science by developing a new discourse analytical method of narrative analysis. Focusing on the three narrative elements of setting, characterization and emplotment, the book argues that narratives are of fundamental importance for human cognition and identity construction. Narratives help us understand the social and political world in which we live. The book emphasizes the idea of intertextual narratability which holds that for narratives to become dominant they have to link themselves to previously existing stories. Empirically the book looks at narratives about pirates, rebels and private military and security companies (PMSCs). The book illustrates in the case of pirates and rebels that the romantic images embedded in cultural narratives influence our understanding of modern piracy in places like Somalia or rebels in Libya. Dominant romantic narratives marginalize other, less flattering, stories about these actors, in which they are constituted as terrorists and made responsible for human rights violations. In contrast, in the case of PMSCs in Iraq the absence of such romantic cultural narratives makes it difficult for such actors to successfully narrate themselves as romantic heroes to the public.
has been greatly exaggerated, then you will doubt that
those changes are likely to pose any existential challenge to the humanitarian international, be
it in terms of the efficacy of what relief groups do in the field or in terms of the political
and moral legitimacy they can aspire to enjoy. But if, on the contrary, you believe that we are living in the last days of a doomed system
– established in the aftermath of World War II and dominated by the US – then the
humanitarian international is no more likely to survive (or to put the matter more
This text aims to fill a gap in the field of Middle Eastern political studies by combining international relations theory with concrete case studies. It begins with an overview of the rules and features of the Middle East regional system—the arena in which the local states, including Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Israel and the Arab states of Syria, Jordan and Iraq, operate. The book goes on to analyse foreign-policy-making in key states, illustrating how systemic determinants constrain this policy-making, and how these constraints are dealt with in distinctive ways depending on the particular domestic features of the individual states. Finally, it goes on to look at the outcomes of state policies by examining several major conflicts including the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Gulf War, and the system of regional alignment. The study assesses the impact of international penetration in the region, including the historic reasons behind the formation of the regional state system. It also analyses the continued role of external great powers, such as the United States and the former Soviet Union, and explains the process by which the region has become incorporated into the global capitalist market.
relations, this study will deploy a combination of several to capture its complex reality.
The Middle East is arguably the epicentre of world crisis, chronically war-prone and the site of the world’s most protracted conflicts. It appears to be the region where the anarchy and insecurity seen by the realist school of international politics as the main feature of states systems remains most in evidence and where the realist paradigm retains its greatest relevance. Yet neo-realism’s 1 a-historical tendency to assume states systems to be unchanging
The nineteenth century and the rise of mass participation
Torbjørn L. Knutsen
Two revolutions convulsed the Old Regime: the political revolution in France and the Industrial Revolution in England. They occurred with rough simultaneity. Together they created new conduits for political and economic mass participation: large-scale armies, mass parties, mass production of consumer goods and rapid growth of consumer markets.
The triumphant growth of industry and human power over the physical world gave nineteenth-century people new confidence in reason and science. Scholars applied novel scientific techniques and logic to
The long sixteenth century saw the evolution of the basic elements of modern international politics – territorial states, sovereign rulers, military structures and overseas ventures. It also witnessed the first stirrings of theoretical considerations about the nature and the operation of these new phenomena. Seventeenth-century thinkers integrated these elements into the vision of a recognizable state system. They forged it on the anvil of the Thirty Years War (1618–48).
The Thirty Years War was the climax of an escalating religious conflict
Machiavelli, one of the most famous political theorists of the Renaissance, is an example. When he discussed politics in terms of virtue and fortune he drew on established, medieval terms. When he discussed affairs of state, he had the city-state foremost in mind. There is no doubt that Machiavelli was a pioneer of political analysis. However, his contributions to International Relations are surprisingly modest. His younger contemporary, Francesco Guicciardini, offered a more elaborate International Relations argument and will here be deemed to be the more important
Geopolitics and capitalist development in the Asia-Pacific
decidedly different from their counterparts in ‘the
West’. 1 At the very least, such structural and discursive
variations serve as powerful reminders that, even in an age
characterized by global processes and ever greater degrees of
economic and political integration, significant differences remain
– differences that often have an enduring regional
the world. Humans comprehend the social world around them in the form of
stories, or rather narratives, from which they draw identities and which guide
their actions (Sarbin 1986; White 1973, 1978, 1987). Narratives not only
reflect the world but influence how it is understood and made. Narratives are
an essential part of how we make sense of the environment around us. This
holds true not only on the individual level but also on a collective and international political level.
The primary concern of the story told in this book is to show how political
political phenomena outside of the romantic story genre.
The story of the book
The theoretical and methodological contribution of this work has been to illustrate the narrative nature of international politics. The book has argued that the
idea of a narrative adopted from literary studies and narratology is helpful as
it offers both an explanation for why narratives matter in the first place as well
as providing a conceptual framework for the empirical analysis of narratives.
Narratives are important for international politics from both a cognitive and