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such episodes are glimpsed on screens large or small, and how this quotation may bear on the film in which it is inserted. A Touch of Class In A Touch of Class , Vickie (Glenda Jackson), a divorced ‘fashion-thief’, embarks tentatively on an affair with Steve (George Segal), a married insurance-broker, on the understanding, at least on her part, that there will be no commitment involved. Naturally, what follows proves less than straightforward, but here it is played for comedy. At one point, without warning, we see

in The never-ending Brief Encounter
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Citational theory and contemporary characterisation

3 Quoting quotations: citational theory and contemporary characterisation Erika Fischer-Lichte discusses the historical notion of dramatic character in terms of the transformation of the ‘sensual body’ of the actor into a ‘semiotic one which would serve as a material carrier for textual meaning’ (Fischer-Lichte, 2008: 78). In such a context any attention drawn to the physical or phenomenological reality of the body of the actor would inevitably detract from its semiotic purpose of constructing the illusion of character. The avant-garde consequently looked, in

in Acts and apparitions
Stalky & Co.

13 Quotations and boundaries: Stalky & Co. Kaori Nagai You ought always to verify your quotations.1 I n ‘Slaves of the Lamp, Part II’, the last story of Stalky & Co., Stalky, aka Arthur Lionel Corkran, enters the stage as a cross-cultural agent, reminiscent of Kim, the hybrid boy par excellence. Now in India as an imperial officer, he commands the full confidence of his Sikh soldiers, who call him Koran Sahib and take him to be ‘an invulnerable Guru of sorts’.2 He speaks their lan­ guage and acts as one of them, even taking them to pray at the Golden Temple

in In Time’s eye

The acceleration of interest in Baldwin’s work and impact since 2010 shows no signs of diminishing. This resurgence has much to do with Baldwin—the richness and passionate intensity of his vision—and also something to do with the dedicated scholars who have pursued a variety of publication platforms to generate further interest in his work. The reach of Baldwin studies has grown outside the academy as well: Black Lives Matter demonstrations routinely feature quotations from Baldwin; Twitter includes a “Son of Baldwin” site; and Raoul Peck’s 2016 documentary, I Am Not Your Negro, has received considerable critical and popular interest. The years 2010–13 were a key period in moving past the tired old formula—that praised his early career and denigrated the works he wrote after 1963—into the new formula—positing Baldwin as a misunderstood visionary, a wide-reaching artist, and a social critic whose value we are only now beginning to appreciate. I would highlight four additional prominent trends that emerged between 2010 and 2013: a consideration of Baldwin in the contexts of film, drama, and music; understandings of Baldwin globally; Baldwin’s criticism of American institutions; and analyses of Baldwin’s work in conversation with other authors.

James Baldwin Review
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What is film remaking? Which films are remakes of other films? How does remaking differ from other types of repetition, such as quotation, allusion, adaptation? How is remaking different from the cinemas ability to repeat and replay the same film through reissue, redistribution and re-viewing? These are questions which have seldom been asked, let alone satisfactorily answered. This article refers to books and essays dealing directly with ‘film remakes’ and the concept of ‘remaking film’, from Michael B. Druxman‘s Make It Again, Sam (1975) to Horton and McDougal‘s Play It Again, Sam (1998) and Forrest and Koo‘s’ Dead Ringers: The Remake in Theory and Practice (2002). In addition, this article draws upon Rick Altman‘s Film/Genre, developing from that book the idea that, although film remakes (like film genres) are often ‘located’ in either authors or texts or audiences, they are in fact not located in any single place but depend upon a network of historically variable relationships. Accordingly this discussion falls into three sections: the first, remaking as industrial category, deals with issues of production, including industry (commerce) and authors (intention); the second, remaking as textual category, considers texts (plots and structures) and taxonomies; and the third, remaking as critical category, deals with issues of reception, including audiences (recognition) and institutions (discourse).

Film Studies
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Essays on Film Music

Among the musical Hitler Émigrés from Vienna to London, pride of place has often been accorded to Hans Keller, a psychologically-minded critic (or, as he described himself, ‘anti-critic’) who dominated the British musical scene for the 40 years that followed 1945. In the period 1946-1959 he devoted himself assiduously to film music, on the one hand laying out the topics that a ‘competent film music critic’ would need to address, and on the other paying scrupulous attention to everything he saw and heard. He shared with Theodor Adorno a loathing of Hollywood, and championed British composers above most others. This selection comes in advance of the publication of his collected writings on film, Film Music and Beyond (London, Plumbago, 2005), and shows on the one hand his topical writings, dealing with the importance of actually listening to film-music, ‘noise as leitmotif’, the contribution of psychology to understanding the function of film music, and classical quotations in film, and on the other hand his writing on composers, including Arthur Benjamin, Georges Auric, William Alwyn, Leonard,Bernstein (On the Waterfront) and Anton Karas (The Third Man).

Film Studies

Brian McFarlane’s The never-ending Brief Encounter is above all a book intended for those who have seen and never forgotten the famous 1945 film in which two decent, middle-class people meet by chance, unexpectedly fall in love, but in the end acknowledge the claims of others. The book grew out of an article, the writing of which revealed that there was so much more to the after-life of the film than the author had realised. This book examines David Lean’s film in sufficient detail to bring its key situations vividly to life, and to give an understanding of how it reworks Nöel Coward’s somewhat static one-act play to profound effect. It also examines the ways in which the ‘comic relief’ is made to work towards the poignant ending. However, the main purpose of the book is to consider the remarkable after-life the film has given rise to. The most specific examples of this phenomenon are, of course, the appalling film remake with its miscast stars, and the later stage versions – both bearing the original title and attracting well-known players and positive audience and critical response – and an opera! As well, there are films and TV series which have ‘quoted’ the film (usually via black-and-white inserts) as commentary on the action of the film or series. There are many other films that, without direct quotation, seem clearly to be echoing their famous predecessor; for example, in the haunting visual quality of a deserted railway platform.

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rape itself, caesural in its absence from the narrative, marks our entrance into a stranger landscape altogether, one much more in line with the fate of quotations and scholarly authorities in the damaged textual world Walter Benjamin identified with German baroque drama. The remainder of this book is an examination of Clarissa in this tragic phase, but in this chapter I focus in particular on 68 Samuel Richardson and the theory of tragedy the major locus of this turn, the so-called ‘mad papers’, which appear shortly after Lovelace’s enigmatic acknowledgement to

in Samuel Richardson and the theory of tragedy
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Essays on Rudyard Kipling
Editor: Jan Montefiore

This book is a collection of essays on Rudyard Kipling and brings historical, literary critical and postcolonial approaches to this perennially controversial writer. The first and fairest thing to say about Kipling is that he has borne a brilliant part in recovering the lost provinces of poetry. Kipling's morality is the morality of someone who has to prove that God is not responsible for part of the world, and that the Devil is. Kipling's imperialist opinions became more strident after the Boer War he lost the esteem of British literary intellectuals, whom he in turn despised. The book addresses Kipling's approach to the Boer war, his involvement with World War One, his Englishness and the politics of literary quotation. It demonstrates the effects of a Kipling-conditioned world on Edward Thomas, Ivor Gurney and David Jones. The book focuses on Kipling's collection of stories and accompanying poems, Actions and Reactions, which was published in October 1909. It also probes the historical subtext of the children's fable Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and Indian history, Kipling's search for God, and his longest Indian experience of footloose travel in the Native states of North India. Stalky & Co is the text of Kipling's which features the largest number of quotations. Kipling's notion of the ideally masculine 'army man' in relation to contemporary late Victorian discourses and practices of same-sex passion is analyzed. The book also addresses Kipling's views on the question of fascism, anti-Semitism and the 'doctrine of racial superiority'.

From the Novellas to the Three Novels

6 Déjà vu beyond reach: from the Novellas to the Three Novels Having nothing to say, no words but the words of others, I have to speak. (Beckett, The Unnamable, p. 288.) In my reading of Mercier et/and Camier I observed how Dante migrates from one text to the other. Sometimes allusions to Dante are repeated in Beckett’s selftranslated version; alternatively, the quotations from Dante are erased and this erasure is commented upon; other times still, some allusions are replaced with different ones, always from the Comedy. These shifts intratextually contribute to

in Beckett’s Dantes