This book seeks to contribute to Italian social history and to deepen understanding of Catholic charity and social policy in past times. It focuses on two groups of disreputable (or at least tarnished) women and children and on the arrangements made to discipline and care for them, both by public authorities and by voluntary organisations and would-be benefactors. The first group consisted of prostitutes, concubines, single mothers, estranged wives, and girls in moral danger. The second was composed of children, many born outside wedlock, who were abandoned by their blood parents, out of shame or poverty or both. A synoptic survey, the book examines the complications involved in the tolerance and regulation of activities considered bad but impossible to suppress. Could licensed prostitution be used as a lesser evil to counter supposedly greater abuses, such as sodomy, adultery or concubinage, and to protect ‘decent’ women? Could child abandonment be tamed and used against the greater evils of infanticide or abortion, to preserve the honour of women who had borne illegitimate children and to save fragile lives? And what should be done to protect and rescue the victims of sexual exploitation and children separated from their natural mothers?
Dishonoured women and abandoned children in Italy, 1300–1800
Women’s work in the Civil Service and the London County Council, 1900–55
Collectively, the Civil Service and the London County Council (LCC) employed tens of thousands of women in Britain in the early twentieth century. As public employers, these institutions remained influential for each other and for private employers more widely as a benchmark for the conditions of women’s white-collar work. This book examines three key aspects of women’s public service employment: inequality of pay, the marriage bar and inequality of opportunity. In so doing, it delineates the levels of regulation and rhetoric surrounding women’s employment and the extent to which notions about femininity and womanhood shaped employment policies and, ultimately, women’s experiences in the workplace. Drawing on a wide range of archival sources, including policy documents, trade union records, women’s movement campaign literature and employees’ personal testimony, this is the first book-length study of women’s public service employment in the first half of the twentieth century. It is also a new lens through which to examine the women’s movement in this period and a contribution to the debate about the effect of the First World War on women’s employment. Scholars and students with interests in gender, British social and cultural history and labour history will find this an invaluable text.
Doing the right thing?
David Hine and Gillian Peele
Integrity issues have become an important item on the British political agenda since the 1990s when ‘sleaze’ prompted John Major to set up the Committee on Standards in Public Life. The book analyses the range of ethical problems which confront the political system and the efforts to address them. It addresses the tightening of standards in response to misconduct in Parliament, in central and local government and in the devolved systems. It also addresses perennial ethical questions such as lobbying and party funding which continue to trouble the United Kingdom as they do other major democracies. The chief purpose of the book is to understand the regulatory dilemmas which face policy-makers as they struggle to produce new machinery and codes to tackle the risk of misconduct. Thus we examine, for example, the choice between self-regulation and independent regulation, decisions about the amount of transparency required of office-holders, and how to achieve proportionality in the balance between perceived problems and regulatory burdens. We also attempt to assess the impact of more than two decades of ethical engineering on the office holders and the public.
Globalising kosher and halal markets
John Lever and Johan Fischer
Over the last two decades, global demand for kosher products has been growing steadily, and many non-religious consumers view kosher as a healthy food option: in the US over 60 per cent of kosher food consumption is linked to non-religious values associated with health and food quality. This book explores the emergence and expansion of global kosher and halal markets with a particular focus on the UK and Denmark. While Kosher is a Hebrew term meaning 'fit' or 'proper', halal is an Arabic word that literally means 'permissible' or 'lawful'. The book discusses the manufacture and production of kosher and halal meat (both red meat and poultry) with specific reference to audits/inspections, legislation, networking, product innovation and certification. It draws on contemporary empirical material to explore kosher and halal comparatively at different levels of the social scale, such as individual consumption, the marketplace, religious organisations and the state. It compares the major markets for kosher/halal in the UK with those in Denmark, where kosher/halal are important to smaller groups of religious consumers. Denmark plays an important role in biotechnology that is compatible with what we call kosher/halal transnational governmentality. The book explores how Jewish and Muslim consumers in the UK and Denmark understand and practice kosher consumption in their everyday lives. It also explores how 'compound practice' links eating with issues such as health and spirituality, for example, and with the influence of secularism and ritual.
The Ministerial Code
David Hine and Gillian Peele
7 Regulation at the centre of government: the Ministerial Code Introduction All office-holders within the executive, whether ministers or civil servants, are subject to broad principles of good governance, such as the Seven Principles of Public Life, and must not exploit office for personal gain. They must exercise the power of executive office within the law. They are also expected to be accountable: ministers to the legislature and ultimately to voters, civil servants to their political masters or their senior managers, and for some senior civil servants
International comparisons and patterns
9 Regulation of direct democracy: international comparisons and patterns Referendums – and especially initiatives – are rare in most Western democracies. They have only become centrepieces of the political systems in Switzerland and – since the 1970 – Italy. The legislative initiative is practically unknown outside America, though as we have seen above, it has begun to play a role in Germany, New Zealand and a couple of former communist countries. The Swiss can merely propose constitutional amendments, but these are often defeated (the voters have endorsed a
Christopher T. Marsden
. Sabine Verheyen MEP 1 This chapter first considers the 2013 Proposal and Trilogue in 2014/15, then the 2015 Regulation’s net neutrality aspects, before finally looking at the details of BEREC’s implementation of its Guidelines. European law upheld transparency on a mandatory basis, and minimum QoS on a voluntary basis, under provisions in the 2009 electronic communications
Christoph Knill and Duncan Liefferink
2 Patterns of regulation Following the historical overview of the first chapter, this chapter employs a more analytical perspective on the main characteristics of the EU environmental policy field. The discussion is organized by a decreasing level of abstraction, i.e. starting with general principles, via regulatory approaches and instruments, going down to an overview of concrete policies and measures. First, the main principles of making environmental policy in the multi-level system of the EU are presented, such as the precautionary principle, the principle
Environmental managerialism and golf’s conspicuous exemption
Brad Millington and Brian Wilson
, however, one excepted use stood out: pesticides could still be deployed on the province’s golf courses . In a curious wrinkle, a law banning pesticides earned support from the pesticide-reliant golf industry. To fully understand the Cosmetic Pesticides Ban Act and golf’s positioning within it, it is necessary to turn first to Canada’s evolving system of environmental (and especially pesticide) regulation. This, as we shall see, is an exercise in accounting for nuance: environmental regulation has in
Wayward apprentices and other ‘evil disposed persons’ at London’s fairs
3 Regulation and resistance: Wayward apprentices and other ‘evil disposed persons’ at London’s fairs1 M iddlesex and Westminster justices and London Aldermen spent a good deal of the late seventeenth through mid-eighteenth centuries attempting to pass legislation they believed would conform London to their idea of an orderly and productive commercial centre. Seasonal fairs that disrupted commercial order in the metropolis concerned London officials working to establish productivity and commerce in the city. Urban legislation and reform discourse sought to