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Pieces of people in the Pavlovian

Burials, body parts and bones in the earlier Upper Palaeolithic

Erik Trinkaus, Sandra Sázelová and Jiří Svoboda

The rich earlier Mid Upper Palaeolithic (Pavlovian) sites of Dolní Vĕstonice I and II and Pavlov I (∼32,000–∼30,000 cal BP) in southern Moravia (Czech Republic) have yielded a series of human burials, isolated pairs of extremities and isolated bones and teeth. The burials occurred within and adjacent to the remains of structures (‘huts’), among domestic debris. Two of them were adjacent to mammoth bone dumps, but none of them was directly associated with areas of apparent discard (or garbage). The isolated pairs and bones/teeth were haphazardly scattered through the occupation areas, many of them mixed with the small to medium-sized faunal remains, from which many were identified post-excavation. It is therefore difficult to establish a pattern of disposal of the human remains with respect to the abundant evidence for site structure at these Upper Palaeolithic sites. At the same time, each form of human preservation raises questions about the differential mortuary behaviours, and hence social dynamics, of these foraging populations and how we interpret them through an archaeological lens.

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An archaeology of lunacy

Managing madness in early nineteenth-century asylums

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Katherine Fennelly

An archaeology of lunacy examines the historic lunatic asylum from an interdisciplinary perspective, employing methods drawn from archaeology, social geography, and history to create a holistic view of the built heritage of the asylum as a distinctive building type. In the popular imagination, historic lunatic asylums were dark, monolithic, and homogenous, instruments for social confinement and punishment. This book aims to redress this historical reputation, showing how the built environment and material worlds of lunatic asylums were distinctive and idiosyncratic – and highly regional. They were also progressive spaces and proving grounds of architectural experimentation, where the reformed treatment practices known as moral management were trialled and refined. The standing remains of the nineteenth-century lunatic asylum system represent a unique opportunity to study a building-type in active transition, both materially and ideologically. When they were constructed, asylums were a composite of reform ideals, architectural materials, and innovative design approaches. An archaeological study of these institutions can offer a materially focused examination of how the buildings worked on a daily basis. This study combines critical analysis of the architecture, material remains, and historical documentary sources for lunatic asylums in England and Ireland. Students and scholars of later historical archaeology and built heritage will find the book a useful overview of this institutional site type, while historians of medicine will find the focus on interior design and architecture of use. The general public, for whom asylums frequently represent shadowy ruins or anonymous redevelopments, may be interested in learning more about the buildings.

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Paul Edmondson, Kevin Colls and William Mitchell

The closest Shakespeare comes to depicting an archaeological excavation is the clearing of a space for Ophelia’s grave. Hamlet looks on (with Horatio), appalled at the matter-of-factness with which the two clownish gravediggers set about their task: skulls ‘knocked about the mazard with a sexton’s spade ... Did these bones cost no more the breeding but to play at loggats

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Katherine Fennelly

concerned with the material legacy of social life. Archaeologists record the ways in which routine and ritual are carried out, changed, and abandoned over time, tracking the movement of people through landscapes using the things they leave behind. Archaeologists are thus well-placed to inform on changes in a busy landand task-scape like the historic lunatic asylum. Lunatic asylums are rich archaeological sites, encompassing both buildings and landscapes, and can inform on the social, political, and economic life of the period in which they were built. Changes to the

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José López Mazz

strategy that we know from archaeological and ethnographic research has existed in this region since the first millennium BC.3 A full repertoire of violent pre-Columbian practices that included scalping, displaying severed heads (as trophies), cannibalism, and the dismemberment of bodies has been recorded in research from the field of prehistory4 and from ethnographic studies of the eighteenth through to the twentieth century.5 Significant levels of violence and social conflict emerged among the pre- and proto-historic peoples living in the lowlands of eastern Uruguay

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Plural traditions?

Folk therapeutics and ‘English’ medicine in Rajasthan

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Helen Lambert

This chapter utilises ethnographic and historical material to examine the contemporary character of medical pluralism in rural Rajasthan, north India. The current social organisation of rural therapeutic practice and the conceptual structuring of lay people’s preferences for different forms of treatment offer some clues for an archaeological investigation of the

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Disassembling the pieces, reassembling the social

The forensic and political lives of secondary mass graves in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Admir Jugo and Sari Wastell

. 241231). 1 B. Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor Network Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). 2 Ibid., p. 5. Secondary mass graves in Bosnia and Herzegovina   165 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B. Latour, Pandora’s Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999). A. Mant, ‘Knowledge acquired from post-war exhumations’, in A. Boddington, A.  N. Garland & R.  C. Janaway (eds), Death, Decay and Reconstruction: Approaches to Archaeology and Forensic Science

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The other ninety per cent

Thinking with data science, creating data studies – an interview with Joseph Dumit

Joseph Dumit

. DN: How did Data Studies become an interest of yours? JD: The immediate genesis was meeting with an alumnus, Tim McCarthy, who had been a social science major and went on to work in senior positions at a series of international banks and financial institutions. He was concerned that Liberal arts majors were declining, even though it was the critical thinking skills of the liberal arts that were incredibly valuable in his career. He was concerned that, when he was starting out, companies hired liberal arts majors and then trained them for one to two years. But today

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Jeremy C.A. Smith

25 2 Currents and perspectives in contemporary civilisational analysis The previous chapter explores the context in which civilisational analysis revived in the humanities and social sciences. The key contention is that contemporary historians and comparative sociologists have posited integrationist, processual and relational images of civilisations. The three images apply to a more diverse range of viewpoints and perspectives than prevailed in earlier studies of civilisations in anthropology, archaeology, history and sociology. In this chapter, those images are

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Lester K. Little

4 The brenta and the brentatori Since brentatore (plural brentatori), the Italian term for a wine porter, derives from brenta (plural brente), the container for carrying wine, any discussion of origins and meanings must begin with the brenta itself. Archaeology, philology, and history all agree on defining the territory of the brenta as southern Switzerland and northern Italy, from the Alps to the Apennines, and from the region of Piedmont in the west to the Adriatic coast in the east. The origins of the term brenta lie in the remote past, in preRoman times and