It is increasingly clear that, alongside the spectacular forms of justice activism, the actually existing just city results from different everyday practices of performative politics that produce transformative trajectories and alternative realities in response to particular injustices in situated contexts. The massive diffusion of urban gardening practices (including allotments, community gardens, guerrilla gardening and the multiple, inventive forms of gardening the city) deserve special attention as experiential learning and in-becoming responses to spatial politics, able to articulate different forms of power and resistance to the current state of unequal distribution of benefits and burdens in the urban space. While advancing their socio-environmental claims, urban gardeners make evident that the physical disposition of living beings and non-living things can both determine and perpetuate injustices or create justice spaces.

In so doing, urban gardeners question the inequality-biased structuring and functioning of social formations (most notably urban deprivation, lack of public decision and engagement, and marginalisation processes); and conversely create (or allow the creation of) spaces of justice in contemporary cities.

This book presents a selection of contributions investigating the possibility and capability of urban gardeners to effectively tackle spatial injustice; and it offers the readers sound, theoretically grounded reflections on the topic. Building upon on-the-field experiences in European cities, it presents a wide range of engaged scholarly researches that investigate whether, how and to what extent urban gardening is able to contrast inequalities and disparities in living conditions.

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The place of equal opportunity

Rawls gives the most sustained treatment of equality of opportunity. 2 He begins from the idea of society as a co-operative venture for mutual advantage. He claims that, so understood, a society requires principles of justice because it needs some way of determining how the various benefits and burdens of social co-operation should be distributed. In the face of widespread disagreement over which principles of justice should

in Political concepts

4 Civic engagement and social justice Introduction Public policy in a variety of countries, Ireland included, has recognised the value of some level of deeper citizen participation in democratic and civic life. At the same time, civil society organisations have increasingly asserted the importance of their participation in policy-­making processes. It was in this context that the Irish government clearly stated that ‘There is a need to create a more participatory democracy where active citizenship is fostered’ defining participation ‘as an exchange between

in Challenging times, challenging administration

3 Exploring the meaning of social justice Introduction What is evident in any discussion on social justice is the lack of agreement on what the concept actually means. Indeed, the notions of justice, equity, equality, rights are contested in many different ways – ideologically, legally, historically, to name but a few. Inevitably this poses problems for those within public administration for whom the challenge of embracing a social justice agenda may appear bewildering and unattractive. In the first two chapters a range of challenges confronting contemporary

in Challenging times, challenging administration

5 Peace via social justice and/or security Roger Mac Ginty and Paula Banerjee Introduction There are, of course, multiple approaches used by states, international organisations and others to achieve and maintain peace. Prominent among the approaches are those that prioritise security, and there are also approaches that see social justice and development as a driver of more pacific ways of dealing with human problems. While it is possible to conceive of these approaches stretched along a continuum, with pure security approaches at one end and pure social justice

in Cultures of governance and peace

7 Social justice and public administration in practice Social justice in practice Introduction Having explored some of the broader issues of social justice understanding, disposition and capacity in the last chapter, this chapter now moves on to look at a number of more specific cases, which provide some indications of how social justice is viewed within public administration. Each case study addresses a particular theme as well as exploring a specific empirical experience. Firstly, an instance of the use of agencies as a vehicle to achieve social justice

in Challenging times, challenging administration

of a dignified social protest (see Certomà and Tornaghi, 2015).Very few scholars would today affirm that a bunch of people silently, even obstinately, caring for a piece of brownfield in the void left over by urban sprawl, are not advancing 2 Urban gardening and the struggle for justice their claims about the character of place they want to live in and the society they want to be a part of (Tracey, 2007). The political nature of gardening, despite not immediately evident, has now been amply demonstrated by recent grassroots (e.g. the international Guerrilla

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
Abstract only
Why gardening has limited success growing inclusive communities

7 Limits to growth? Why gardening has limited success growing inclusive communities Hannah Pitt Introduction As this collection’s introduction highlights, heavy expectations are placed on urban gardens’ ability to advance social and spatial justice. Community is central to these:  as outcomes of garden practices, it is taken as evidence of social inclusion as people form relationships of trust and mutual-​dependence. As both mode of garden activity and mechanism of its achievements, community is seen to represent an inclusive approach to addressing injustice

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
The case of Ortobello Urban Garden

fundamental role in the strategies and activism of labour and local community groups (Soja, 2009). The increasing number of metropolitan areas worldwide suggests that more in-​depth investigations into these metropolitan neighbourhoods are needed in order to explain the complex social dynamics emerging in these new contexts. As a matter of fact, the majority of the existing studies provided analyses and investigations focused on metropolitan settings. However, the issue of spatial justice also involves smaller urban settings. We propose the analysis of a case study based in

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
Concepts and practice

or geographical aspects of justice and injustice’ (Soja, 2009:  2). To understand this ‘political characteristic’, the chapter will explore the influence of and relationship between neoliberalisation and UG. There is a general acceptance of ‘new’ urban-​based social movements as a result of neoliberalisation (Castells, 2015). Political UG has emerged as one form, which includes allotments, urban farms, ‘guerrilla’ and community gardens (Cone and Myhre, 2000; Hermann et  al., 2006; Hoffman and Doody, 2014; Lawson, 2005; Orsini et al., 2013; Ousset et al., 1998).This

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice