Search Results

Open Access (free)

Valérie Robin Azevedo

In recent years, exhumation campaigns of mass graves resulting from the armed conflict (1980–2000) between the Maoist guerrillas of PCP-Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the States armed forces have increased in Peru. People in rural Andes, the most marginalised sectors of national society, which were also particularly affected by the war, are the main group concerned with exhumations. This article examines the handling, flow and re-appropriation of exhumed human remains in public space to inform sociopolitical issues underlying the reparation policies implemented by the State, sometimes with the support of human rights NGOs. How do the families of victims become involved in this unusual return of their dead? Have the exhumations become a new repertoire of collective action for Andean people seeking to access their fundamental rights and for recognition of their status as citizens? Finally, what do these devices that dignify the dead reveal about the internal workings of Peruvian society – its structural inequities and racism – which permeate the social fabric?

Open Access (free)


Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

Mark Duffield

declined ( Mair, 2013 ). While NGOs lay claim to a ‘non-governmental’ status, direct action thrived when donor sovereignty was, paradoxically, still able to cast a shadow. Given the refugee crisis, few can today contemplate the wretched state of ‘official’ humanitarianism without some disquiet. Despite what we may wish or demand, however, it is unlikely that significant improvement will occur any time soon. But to then conclude that humanitarianism is dead would be a mistake. While autonomous international direct action lies buried in the rubble of

Open Access (free)

Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

they are young and therefore without power, but not necessarily because of their age. Their status (and lack of authority) is defined by their structural location in society: they may be youths, or old but second-born, or women or foreigners with no rights. Focusing on intermediaries, mediation and in particular on the role of the cadets sociaux enables us to show how social dynamics are re-enacted in a context of crisis. Background Historical analyses have attributed the failure of the Guinean, Liberian and Sierra Leonian governmental responses at the

Open Access (free)

When the Music Stops

Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

Stephen Hopgood

practicality prevents it). This is the same foundational commitment that animates human rights work. The humanist core to both of these forms of social practice is a similar kind of belief in the ultimate priority of moral claims made by human beings as human beings rather than as possessors of any markers of identity or citizenship. What differences exist between humanitarianism and human rights are largely sociological – the contextual specifics of the evolution of two different forms of social activism. I have argued elsewhere, for example, that

Open Access (free)

David Rieff

role has diminished over the past decade, as they have been at least partially displaced by so-called socially responsible corporations and ‘philanthrocapitalism’ à la Bill and Melinda Gates, which increasingly are presented (and, of course, present themselves) as indispensable to any successful effort to combat poverty, hunger and disease in the poor world. 2 Even so, the moral warrant that NGOs provide for the great Western powers is still viewed in Washington, Brussels and elsewhere as being of value. A US Secretary of State might not, today, go

Open Access (free)

The Changing Faces of UNRWA

From the Global to the Local

Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

). These employees embody the potential for a form of multiscalar ‘mutual self-reliance’ or ‘collective self-sufficiency’ – this is to say that UNRWA employees have not only aimed to achieve a degree of ‘self-reliance’ on an individual and family level (as per UNHCR’s definition above) but have also acted as peer providers of assistance and services for communities across the region ( Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, 2011 , 2015 ). At a time when ‘self-reliance’ and job creation are being extensively promoted as the key, apolitical and status

Open Access (free)

Oases of Humanity and the Realities of War

Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles

Rony Brauman

without an immediate backlash shows how easily IHL can be reconciled with mass killings, provided they can be classified as ‘military necessities’. Should we just dispense with IHL, then? No, because it helps humanitarian organisations create negotiation space with governments – the ones that accept the principle, of course, and not all do, although many agree to it. Humanitarian organisations can use those governments’ commitments to IHL to support their requests for authorisation to act and to bolster their status as legitimate actors in conflicts. Neither a moral

Open Access (free)

All Lives Are Equal but Some Lives Are More Equal than Others

Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

Miriam Bradley

as compared with expatriate staff ( Beerli, 2018 ; Stoddard et al. , 2011 ). Even the categories of ‘national’ and ‘expatriate’ staff encompass a range of sub-categories across which there is variation in security strategies. Likewise, under the rubric of civilian protection, different measures may be taken for different segments of the civilian population, according to age, gender, legal status (e.g. refugees and internally displaced persons) and other characteristics ( Carpenter, 2003 ; Dolan and Hovil, 2006 ). While the main line of comparison in this article

Open Access (free)

War Breaks Out

Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

acknowledgement of their embeddedness in their social and political context. The Leer staff’s political opinions did not exclude expectations of the humanitarian organisation they worked for. Although some voiced their ‘pride’ that MSF was the first NGO to be back in town, several staff members expressed that they had felt abandoned when the MSF international team had evacuated: Other NGOs, when they hear that the enemy was coming here, they evacuated their staff. But we who had a contract with MSF, we were told ‘this is your community, remain here’. That left scars in our

Abstract only

A lark for the sake of their country

The 1926 General Strike volunteers in folklore and memory

Rachelle Hope Saltzman

The 1926 General Strike lasted officially from midnight on 3 May until 12 May. Over the course of nine days, four million workers came out in sympathy with coal miners, who were protesting against attempts by mine owners and managers to reduce wages and lengthen hours. The General Strike was not merely evidence of class divisions and a postwar society in transition; the event and its participants have become national folk symbols for Britishness. The university lads, society women, Bright Young People, and businessmen who served as volunteers did not regard their acts as motivated by class divisions but fuelled by a desire to keep their country moving. Clearly, volunteering was an adventure, a way of making oneself important to the community at large. But it was also an act limited to those of a certain age and socio-economic status, those who had both the leisure and few responsibilities to others. The very nature of the activities required of volunteers restricted who could or could not join up. Furthermore, the semi-official nature of the organization of the call-up dictated that the more desirable jobs would go to those of higher social status. The defining features of the General Strike were its good humour and the ways in which all involved used a variety of comic forms of speech and behaviour to frame the event and express particular visions of the national community.