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Here we explore socialism – an ideology that, uniquely, sprang from the industrial revolution and the experience of the class that was its product, the working class. Though a more coherent ideology than conservatism, socialism has several markedly different strands. In order to appreciate these, and the roots of socialism in a concrete historical experience, we explore its

in Understanding political ideas and movements

9780719081033_2_C13.qxd 1/20/10 9:09 Page 274 13 Socialism and liberalism Historians who have wanted to emphasise the limited ambitions of organised labour in modern Britain have developed the notions of ‘labourism’ and subordination to the established order to encompass not only Victorian Liberalism but also the formative years of the Labour Party. Thus they have seen twentieth-century trade unionists as having a degree of autonomy and assertiveness in the economic sphere, possibly even increasing as their organisations grew in strength. However, they have

in The tide of democracy
The special case of Dr Christopher Addison

11 Progressivism to democratic socialism: the special case of Dr Christopher Addison Kenneth O. Morgan David Marquand’s lengthy career and prolific writings have been mainly devoted to championing a mighty cause – uniting and mobilising the forces of centre-left progressivism and thus overthrowing the Conservative dominance of post-1918 British politics. David once termed it ‘a marriage of Tom Paine and William Morris’, which might have been as stormy as Morris’s marriage in real life. It is what Roy Jenkins and the Blairites in the mid-1990s called ‘the

in Making social democrats

4 Rethinking socialism and education Education towards Revolution seems to me to express in three words what our policy should be; towards that New Birth of Society which we know must come, and which, therefore, we must strive to help forward so that it may come with as little confusion and suffering as may be. (William Morris 1886)1 Radical struggles over education These are the words of William Morris, British writer, designer, artist and socialist. He joined the newly formed Democratic Federation in 1883, though an early split resulted in the foundation of

in Making socialists
A historical overview, 1879–1982

2 The character of Spanish Socialism: a historical overview, 1879–1982 The PSOE is acutely mindful of its history and traditions and this awareness of the past is a key element in the contemporary party’s self-­affirmation (Gunther, 1986: 10; Tezanos, 1989: 436; Juliá, 1990: 270; Maravall, 1992: 7; Heywood, 1994a: 3). In order to analyse today’s PSOE it is necessary to consider the party’s historical legacy. Indifferent to electoral politics during the first three decades of its existence following its establishment in 1879, the PSOE emerged – electorally – as

in The Spanish Socialist Party and the modernisation of Spain
Margaret Harkness and Olive Schreiner

Socialism, suffering, and religious mystery 9 •• Socialism, suffering, and religious mystery: Margaret Harkness and Olive Schreiner Angharad Eyre In 1888, in To-day, Margaret Harkness published an allegory, ‘The Gospel of Getting On’, which suggested that socialists were the only true nineteenth-century Christians. She dedicated the allegory to Olive Schreiner, the South African author famous for The Story of An African Farm (1883), whom she had met during the 1880s in London. Harkness encountered Schreiner’s writing within a wider context of a society that

in Margaret Harkness
Demand-side abundance and its discontents in Hungary during the long 1960s

1 Consumer and consumerism under state socialism: demand-side abundance and its discontents in Hungary during the long 1960s György Péteri1 Can consumption in state-socialist societies constitute a relevant field for the student of social issues related to overflow situations? So skeptical readers may wonder, and I cannot blame them. Of course, the first thing that comes to mind when thinking about these societies is shortages rather than excesses, insufficiency rather than plenty, a lack of almost everything rather than abundance. Indeed, shortages and their

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
Interpreting the unions–party link

ITLP_C10.QXD 18/8/03 10:01 am Page 150 10 Too much pluralism, not enough socialism: interpreting the unions–party link Steve Ludlam A central object of Labour’s re-branding as ‘New Labour’ was to distance it from its trade union affiliates (Gould 1998: 257–8). The relationship was tense before and after the 1997 election, when Blair reduced the unions’ formal power in the party, and restricted employment policy initiatives largely to his predecessors’ promises (Ludlam 2001). But discontent was limited by real union gains, and tension eased markedly between

in Interpreting the Labour Party

The context: World War One and its aftermath Key events and processes of World War One and the post-war years shaped the development and character of the Right’s anti-socialism and the attempt successfully to portray Labour as disloyal and extreme. Within this context Australia and Britain underwent both shared and distinct experiences. For example, although the domestic mobilisation of physical and human resources for the war effort was more extensive and profound in Britain than in

in Labour and the politics of Empire
The crisis of British social democratic political economy

3 From The Future of Socialism (1956) to a future without socialism? The crisis of British social democratic political economy Noel Thompson The national shift to the left, with all its implications for the balance of power, may be accepted as permanent . . . Any Government which tampered seriously with the basic structure of the full-employment Welfare State would meet with a sharp reverse at the polls . . . It is this which explains the otherwise curious phenomenon that the Conservatives now fight elections largely on policies which twenty years ago were

in In search of social democracy