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Masahiro Mogaki

4 Regulatory state transformation with an unusual approach This chapter examines the specific characteristics of Japan’s ICT ­regulation after the 1980s. The chapter first considers the impact of state transformation through the institutional characteristics of the ICT regulator as a ministry and the lack of an independent regulator. The impact of the collective view and power relations between state actors regarding issues such as regulatory organisations exemplify the development of state transformation. Japan offers an unusual example in which only a limited

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Pedro Ramos Pinto

2 The New State and the transformation of urban citizenship, 1926–74 The New State and urban citizenship, 1926–74 I asked [a miner] when the housing shortage first became acute in his district; he answered, ‘When we were told about it.’ (George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier, 1937)1 The reasons why so many people became politically active in popular movements such as the residents’ commissions and housing occupations of 1974–75, often for the first time, is taken as read. For most existing accounts of the urban movement, the obvious scarcity of housing and

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Understanding governance in contemporary Japan

Transformation and the regulatory state

Masahiro Mogaki

This book explores the transformation of the Japanese state in response to a variety of challenges by focusing on two case studies: Information and Communications Technology (ICT) regulation and anti-monopoly regulation after the 1980s, which experienced a disjuncture and significant transformation during the period, with particularistic approaches embracing competition. The case studies set up the state as the key locus of power, in contrast to pluralist and rational choice schools, which regard the state as insignificant. The analytical framework is drawn from key theories of governance and the state including the concepts of the core executive and the regulatory state. The book explores the extent to which there is asymmetric dominance on the part of Japan’s core executive through an examination of recent developments in the Japanese regulatory tradition since the 1980s. It concludes that the transformation of the Japanese state in the two case studies can be characterised as Japanese regulatory state development, with a view that the state at a macro level is the key locus of power. This book explores the transformation of the state and governance in a Japanese context and presents itself as an example of the new governance school addressing the state, its transformation, and the governance of the political arena in Japanese politics and beyond, setting out a challenge to the established body of pluralist and rational choice literature on Japanese politics.

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Scalpel and Metaphor

The Ceremony of Organ Harvest in Gothic Science Fiction

Sara Wasson

In organ transfer, tissue moves through a web of language. Metaphors reclassify the tissue to enable its redeployment, framing the process for practitioners and public. The process of marking off tissue as transferrable in legal and cultural terms parallels many of the processes that typically accompany commodification in late capitalism. This language of economic transformation echoes the language of Gothic ceremony, of purification and demarcation. As in literary Gothic s representations of ceremony, this economic work is anxious and the boundaries it creates unstable. This article identifies dominant metaphors shaping that ceremony of tissue reclassification, and examines how three twenty-first century novels deploy these metaphors to represent the harvest (procurement) process (the metaphor of harvest; is itself highly problematic, as I will discuss). Kazuo Ishiguros Never Let Me Go (2005), Neal Shusterman Unwind (2007), and Ninni Holmqvists Swedish novel Enhet (The Unit) (2006, translated into English in 2010) each depict vulnerable protagonists within societies where extreme tissue procurement protocols have state sanction. The texts invite us to reflect on the kinds of symbolic substitutions that help legitimate tissue transfer and the way that procurement protocols may become influenced by social imperatives. In each text, the Gothic trope of dismemberment becomes charged with new urgency.

Open Access (free)

Juliano Fiori

multinational military task force into Somalia, with the stated aim of protecting relief operations. These humanitarian wars, and others that followed during the 1990s, were waged not only to respond to a perceived evil but also to define good and evil and the limits of acceptable behaviour ( Fiori, 2018 ). Other Western governments also now looked to humanitarian agencies as allies in the liberal transformation of the developing world. During the Cold War, humanitarian NGOs had generally been limited to operating in countries under Western tutelage, but

Open Access (free)

José Luís Fiori

. Decolonisation and the independence of African and Asian states contributed to this expansion. And of particular importance was China’s transformation of its ancient civilisation and empire into a nation state, which, after the Cold War, would sign up to the international institutions and regulations created following the Second World War. Indeed, this is one of the reasons that, in the 1990s, American commentators referred to the ‘end of history’, the emergence of a unipolar world, the victory of Western liberalism and the universalisation of Western values

Open Access (free)

When the Music Stops

Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

Stephen Hopgood

own societies, especially as reformists of the centre left and right (Clinton, Blair) came to dominate the party-political scene after Thatcher and Reagan embedded the neoliberal revolution of the 1980s. After the Cold War, in other words, the liberal world order was a fact of life. In Margaret Thatcher’s immortal words, ‘there is no alternative’. The consequences of this focus on private enterprise, mobile money, weakened unions, reduced state welfare and regulation and lower taxes are all too visible today in areas like wealth inequality and

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Introduction

Transformation, governance and the state in the Japanese context

Masahiro Mogaki

1 Introduction: transformation, governance and the state in the Japanese context The 2010s have seen a significant transformation in politics. The established governing regimes across the globe have been confronted by challenges that have undermined their traditional foundation of governing. The outcomes of the 2016 US presidential election and the 2016 referendum regarding the UK’s EU membership can be interpreted as a wave of populist nationalism occurring on the home territory of classic, liberalist, Anglo-Saxon areas (Fukuyama 2017). This set of political

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Conclusion

The civil service, the State and the Irish revolution

Martin Maguire

power. Hierarchy was the simplest way to subordinate the inherited bureaucracy to the new executive. However, it was not the best or the most appropriate relationship between the civil service and the government of the newly independent State. Still carrying the pre-independence nationalist contempt for the Castle bureaucracy, and acquiring the post-war Whitehall view of the necessity of Treasury dictatorship in dealing with rank-and-file civil servants, the Cosgrave government failed to recognise the civil service as an agent of modernity. The final transformation of

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Masahiro Mogaki

sector. Prompted by the above observations, this chapter examines the JFTC’s independence and state capacity within the sector. To elaborate, it first pinpoints the independent characteristic of the JFTC. What follows is an assessment of the impact of transformation through analysing the capacity of the state in anti-monopoly regulation. The third section pulls together the points raised in both the previous chapter and this chapter and considers the nature of state transformation in anti-monopoly regulation after the 1980s. The nature and limitations of the JFTC