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Masahiro Mogaki

7 Regulatory transformation and the core executive Japan and its politics has long been a significant topic of research. With the emergence of observers highlighting the transformation of the state after the 1980s, the nature and transformation of the Japanese state of the period offers a timely contribution to understanding governance and public policy scholarship. The case studies in Part II explicitly disclose the significance of the core executive as key to explaining governance and regulation, with its unusual approach based on the conventional process

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Masahiro Mogaki

3 The evolving core executive in response to burgeoning ICT The move to more liberalisation within markets after the 1980s marked a significant disjuncture in many economic sectors. In the case of the ICT sector, where market liberalisation has had a significant impact in many countries, liberalisation has meant a distinctive change from monopoly (often by the state/state corporation) to market-driven competition. The case of Japan’s ICT sector offers a potentially useful example because of its history of market competition dating back to 1985, when the

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Understanding governance in contemporary Japan

Transformation and the regulatory state

Masahiro Mogaki

This book explores the transformation of the Japanese state in response to a variety of challenges by focusing on two case studies: Information and Communications Technology (ICT) regulation and anti-monopoly regulation after the 1980s, which experienced a disjuncture and significant transformation during the period, with particularistic approaches embracing competition. The case studies set up the state as the key locus of power, in contrast to pluralist and rational choice schools, which regard the state as insignificant. The analytical framework is drawn from key theories of governance and the state including the concepts of the core executive and the regulatory state. The book explores the extent to which there is asymmetric dominance on the part of Japan’s core executive through an examination of recent developments in the Japanese regulatory tradition since the 1980s. It concludes that the transformation of the Japanese state in the two case studies can be characterised as Japanese regulatory state development, with a view that the state at a macro level is the key locus of power. This book explores the transformation of the state and governance in a Japanese context and presents itself as an example of the new governance school addressing the state, its transformation, and the governance of the political arena in Japanese politics and beyond, setting out a challenge to the established body of pluralist and rational choice literature on Japanese politics.

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Masahiro Mogaki

close circle of core state actors: the core executive. State transformation is the set of processes reconstituting the state, in which the core executive exploits opportunities to reshape its existing capacities and develop new forms of intervention to sustain its position as the dominant policy-making actor (Richards 2008: 97–8). What is key here is the core executive’s resources and strategic-learning capabilities, drawing on its asymmetric structural position within the government. Within this broad analytical framework, I illuminate the concepts of the core

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Piecemeal transformation

Anti-monopoly regulation

Masahiro Mogaki

1980 1977 AMA amendment (first substantial enhancement) SII (1989–90) 2005 2000 2010 2005 AMA amendment (introducing a leniency programme) Figure 5.1  Timeline of the development of Japan’s anti-monopoly regulation The impact of the SII resulted in prioritising the enhancement of the JFTC and anti-monopoly regulation (see Figure 5.1). The transformation of Japan’s anti-monopoly regulation has had a gradual impact on the core executive in this field. With its independence of authority, the JFTC has not only fended off party politician intervention but also

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Jarle Trondal, Martin Marcussen, Torbjörn Larsson and Frode Veggeland

. It is the GS and the President that have the obligation to co-ordinate the activities of the different services underneath. Moreover, the ambitions of the current President of the Commission are to foster a more horizontal co-ordination of the services, contributing to increased presidentialisation of the core executive of the Union (see Poguntke and Webb 2005). One essential part of the presidentialisation of the Commission administration is the role of the political level of the Commission consisting of the College of Commissioners and their Cabinets. As a direct

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Gendering the policy process

Venue shopping and diversity-seeking

Anna Boucher

Mazur 1995: 5). As such, women’s political machinery operates as a challenge to gender norms within the core executive and achieves this disruption through simultaneous ‘insider’ and ‘outsider’ activism (Sawer 1990). To date the role of such women’s political machinery in immigration policy-making has not been extensively explored, despite the fact that the establishment of a Gender-Based Analysis Unit within CIC accompanied the enactment of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (2002) (Cdn) (see only Abu-Laban and Gabriel 2002; Boucher 2007, 2010; Dauvergne et

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Kieran Keohane and Carmen Kuhling

its complex decision making and executive functions, a process that many people feel will do nothing to redress, and in fact will exacerbate, the problems of the EU’s technocracy. To get a bead on the ambivalence of the Treaty of Rome, the tensions of civilization and barbarism that animate the EU, we will revisit what Benjamin might have called the ur-phenomenon, the original ‘Treaty of Rome’. The mythic Treaty of Rome In Rome: The Book of Foundations Serres (1991) uses the vast and rich diversity of archaeological, historical and mythological trackings and

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Governance in Japan

The implications of the research

Masahiro Mogaki

Vogel’s (1996) study of Japan’s ICT regulation and financial regulation. In line with this previous literature, the evidence of this book identifies this traditional tendency through the accounts of current and former civil servants, revealing an orientation to industrial development in the ICT sector in the 1980s and 1990s. The reconstitution of the Japanese state has been accompanied by changes of power within the core executive, which has also resulted in the transformation of a developmental state led by civil servants as described by Johnson. Powerful party

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Introduction

Transformation, governance and the state in the Japanese context

Masahiro Mogaki

focusing on state actors and regulatory reforms, showing how the Japanese state asserted its will against the targeted industries such as telecommunications and financial services. The 10  Conceptualising the Japanese state and governance 2000s saw a successive body of literature drawing on the state-centric approach demonstrated by Vogel. For example, throughout his exploration of Japan’s fiscal policy between the 1970s and 2000s, Wright (2002) illuminates the complicated decision-making mechanism, revealing the persistent dominance of the core executive within this