Jousts, shooting fraternities and Chambers of rhetoric
Andrew Brown and Graeme Small

the basic requirement of military exercise. Regular inter-town competitions could bring together large numbers: 560 crossbowmen with hundreds of retainers at an event in Ghent in 1440, and comparable numbers at Tournai in 1455 [ 17b ], while shooting guilds could be large in membership, several hundred-strong in more populous towns. 3

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530
John J. Hurt

reason to be pleased. No finance minister before him had coerced the parlements into accepting an augmentations de gages of this size without the club of the paulette renewal.4 As favourable auspices, several tribunals paid for their augmentations de gages at once. The reliable magistrates of Aix borrowed their money within weeks and even helped the Parlement of Grenoble to find loans in Aix, permitting the latter also to settle its account swiftly. Similarly, the Parlements of Dijon, Metz, Besançon and Tournai all kept to reasonable schedules in raising their funds. But

in Louis XIV and the parlements
John J. Hurt

.67 million, for several reasons. The Parlement of Bordeaux, having proved financial distress, persuaded the government to lower its augmentations de gages obligation by 50 percent, causing a drop in the overall total. In partial compensation, the Parlement of Metz, which had more magistrates in 1701 than in 1692, paid a bit more; and a new parlement, at Besançon, paid for the first time. (The Parlement of Tournai, also new, pleaded poverty and obtained an exemption.) These sums represented the financial consequences of the political submission of the parlements. In 1689, Le

in Louis XIV and the parlements
Andrew Brown and Graeme Small

term is equally applicable to towns in Northern Europe. From the fourteenth century, if not earlier, official civic interest in acquiring patron saints and managing their public veneration is evident. The assumption of civic control over incipient cults (such as in Tournai or Brussels [ 20a , 20b , 22 ]), the establishment of annual processions with

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530
A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

Abstract only
Andrew Brown and Graeme Small

Ghent, for whom he produced his Adoration of the Mystic Lamb [ 14 ]. 7 The accounts of the ducal household record considerable expenditure on the purchase, upkeep and transport of tapestries, but the wills of townsfolk from Tournai and Douai reveal that the ownership of tapestry goods of differing scale and quality was also widespread. 8 The presence of the city in the work of

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530
Rosemary Horrox

. Given at Avignon, Sunday 27 April, 1348. 6. The plague seen from Tournai Gilles li Muisis, Abbot of St Giles at Tournai, wrote two accounts of the plague. The first, a brief summary written late in 1348, appears in his Chronicle and is printed as a below

in The Black Death
Andrew Brown and Graeme Small

, was head of the duke’s council; Jean Lefèvre de Saint-Rémy, chief herald of the Order, was one of the most travelled ducal diplomats at court; Martin Steenberghe, greffier , was a ducal secretary. The first and last of these men also held positions in two of the most important churches in the Low Countries, Fillastre as bishop of Tournai

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530
Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

ordinances, court cases, and chronicles by the mid-thirteenth century [2–4, 9, 12] , and riots comprised of, organised, and led by textile workers were commonplace here before the Black Death [5, 6, 8, 16, 19] . Nor did such activity emerge only in important textile centres such as Douai, Tournai, Bruges, and Ghent; it was also notable in provincial market towns such as Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe
New perspectives on iconography
Luke Demaitre

-fifteenth-century miniature adorns the statutes of the sisters of the Hôpital Notre-Dame in Tournai, Belgium, which were drawn up in 1238. The precision with which the nun’s habit is drawn, in accordance with descriptions in the statutes, gives reason to attribute a degree of realism to the portrait of the leprous wanderer. The lesions on his face, hands and bare feet are moderate – and hardly visible in the reproduction in Figure 8.20 – so that we might not recognise his condition were it not for the wide-brimmed hat, the loose frock, the staff and the clapper in particular. 46 The

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages