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Pedro Almodóvar’s transnational imaginary
Carla Marcantonio

fatales, identities constructed outside the bounds of the nuclear family – the family at the centre of the discursive strategies of the nation and the affective nexus dramatised by the melodramatic mode. Furthermore, the transvestite characters in each of these films provide a figure of embodiment for these transnational articulations informed, in part, by their iconographic status as femme fatales

in Contemporary Spanish cinema and genre
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Fur, fashion and species transvestism
Catherine Spooner

introduces crisis … The ‘third’ is a mode of articulation, a way of describing a space of possibility. Three puts in question the idea of one: of identity, self-sufficiency, self-knowledge. 4 In her conclusion, Garber insists that ‘the wolf inscribes itself all over the text of transvestism’, drawing attention to a number of apparently coincidental references to wolves in transvestite texts

in In the company of wolves
Robert Shaughnessy

Restoration stage), the celebrated Peking Opera artist Mei Lanfang, the Chorus of Splinters (a transvestite concert troupe that toured the trenches during the First World War), Alec Guinness in Kind Hearts and Coronets , Jack Lemmon and Tony Curtis in Some Like It Hot , a schoolboy Laurence Olivier as Kate in The Taming of the Shrew , and images of burlesque, music hall, cabaret and pantomime. If this

in As You Like It
Tommy Dickinson

received mixed and muddled messages regarding their patients’ place  in society. Public debate surrounding sexual deviations refocused on to issues of aetiology rather than punishment, in a highly charged discourse which centred on finding a cure.2 This chapter draws upon publications within the medical press and news media, along with literary, film, legal and sociological depictions of homosexuality to explore the complex social and cultural climate in which the homosexuals, transvestites and mental nurses were living from the 1930s to the 1960s. In doing so, it offers

in ‘Curing queers’
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Writing American sexual histories
Author: Barry Reay

The archive has assumed a new significance in the history of sex, and this book visits a series of such archives, including the Kinsey Institute’s erotic art; gay masturbatory journals in the New York Public Library; the private archive of an amateur pornographer; and one man’s lifetime photographic dossier on Baltimore hustlers. The subject topics covered are wide-ranging: the art history of homoeroticism; casual sex before hooking-up; transgender; New York queer sex; masturbation; pornography; sex in the city. The duality indicated by the book’s title reflects its themes. It is an experiment in writing an American sexual history that refuses the confines of identity sexuality studies, spanning the spectrum of queer, trans, and the allegedly ‘normal’. What unites this project is a fascination with sex at the margins, refusing the classificatory frameworks of heterosexuality and homosexuality, and demonstrating gender and sexual indecision and flexibility. And the book is also an exploration of the role of the archive in such histories. The sex discussed is located both in the margins of the archives, what has been termed the counterarchive, but also, importantly, in the pockets of recorded desire located in the most traditional and respectable repositories. The sexual histories in this book are those where pornography and sexual research are indistinguishable; where personal obsession becomes tomorrow’s archive. The market is potentially extensive: those interested in American studies, sexuality studies, contemporary history, the history of sex, psychology, anthropology, sociology, gender studies, queer studies, trans studies, pornography studies, visual studies, museum studies, and media studies.

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The diaries of Louis Graydon Sullivan
Barry Reay

cultural psyche that it is difficult to imagine another time. We are concerned here with this earlier phase of trans history, from the 1960s to the 1980s, before the Internet, when sexual and gender definitions and categories were more fixed, and many experts, and many so-termed transvestites and transsexuals, thought that they knew exactly what transvestism and transsexuality were. Transvestites cross-dressed but did not want to be the sex of those whose clothing they wore. Cross-dressing in female garb was common: crossdressing in male clothing was rare. Transsexuals

in Sex in the archives
Stage Beauty as a cerebral retort to Hollywood
Sarah Martindale

Released six years after Shakespeare in Love won Best Picture Oscar, Stage Beauty (Eyre, 2004) portrays Shakespearean performance history at the point in the Restoration when female impersonators were replaced by actresses on the English stage. Given the similarities between the two films, it comes as no surprise to find that the press response to Stage Beauty made frequent comparisons, describing it as: ‘bitchy half-sister to Shakespeare in Love’; ‘Shakespeare in Love II’; and ‘Shakespeare in Love for transvestites’. Those involved in making Stage Beauty were keen to differentiate its cinematic qualities. The film was adapted by Jeffrey Hatcher from his stage play Compleat Female Stage Beauty, and directed by Richard Eyre, a former artistic director of the National Theatre. This chapter examines the textual features that mark this film out as a serious-minded depiction of theatrical heritage and gender play, along with the reception discourses that the film stimulated. It also considers possible barriers to cultural engagement with Shakespeare as manifested in ‘art cinema’ with reference to audience research.

in British art cinema
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Author: Rachael Gilmour

At a time when monolingualist claims for the importance of ‘speaking English’ to the national order continue louder than ever, even as language diversity is increasingly part of contemporary British life, literature becomes a space to consider the terms of linguistic belonging. Bad English examines writers including Tom Leonard, James Kelman, Suhayl Saadi, Raman Mundair, Daljit Nagra, Xiaolu Guo, Leila Aboulela, Brian Chikwava, and Caroline Bergvall, who engage multilingually, experimentally, playfully, and ambivalently with English’s power. Considering their invented vernaculars and mixed idioms, their dramatised scenes of languaging – languages learned or lost, acts of translation, scenes of speaking, the exposure and racialised visibility of accent – it argues for a growing field of contemporary literature in Britain pre-eminently concerned with language’s power dynamics, its aesthetic potentialities, and its prosthetic strangeness. Drawing on insights from applied linguistics and translation studies as well as literary scholarship, Bad English explores contemporary arguments about language in Britain – in debates about citizenship or education, in the media or on Twitter, in Home Office policy and asylum legislation – as well as the ways they are taken up in literature. It uncovers both an antagonistic and a productive interplay between language politics and literary form, tracing writers’ articulation of linguistic alienation and ambivalence, as well as the productivity and making-new of radical language practices. Doing so, it refutes the view that language difference and language politics are somehow irrelevant to contemporary Britain and instead argues for their constitutive centrality to the work of novelists and poets whose inside/outside relationship to English in its institutionalised forms is the generative force of their writing.

Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape
Author: Janice Norwood

Victorian touring actresses: Crossing boundaries and negotiating the cultural landscape provides a new perspective on the on- and offstage lives of women working in nineteenth-century theatre, and affirms the central role of touring, both within the United Kingdom and in North America and Australasia. Drawing on extensive archival research, it features a cross-section of neglected performers whose dramatic specialisms range from tragedy to burlesque. Although they were employed as stars in their own time, their contribution to the industry has largely been forgotten. The book’s innovative organisation follows a natural lifecycle, enabling a detailed examination of the practical challenges and opportunities typically encountered by the actress at each stage of her working life. Individual experiences are scrutinised to highlight the career implications of strategies adopted to cope with the demands of the profession, the physical potential of the actress’s body, and the operation of gendered power on and offstage. Analysis is situated in a wide contextual framework and reveals how reception and success depended on the performer’s response to the changing political, economic, social and cultural landscape as well as to developments in professional practice and organisation. The book concludes with discussion of the legacies of the performers, linking their experiences to the present-day situation.

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Tommy Dickinson

Concluding remarks It is fairly clear that the nurses in this study did not deliberately set out to inflict pain and distress on homosexuals and transvestites in their care. A variety of circumstantial factors provided momentum for the development and implementation of medical ‘treatments’ to ‘cure’ these individuals. The medicalisation of sexual deviation can be traced back to the late nineteenth century. However, World War II appears to have been a critical point in this medicalisation. In spite of the war exposing the British to different and more liberal

in ‘Curing queers’