Relations between Europe and its Muslim minorities constitute an extensive focus for discussion both within and beyond the Continent. This book reports on the years mainly between 2005 and 2015 and focuses on the exploitation of recent European history when describing relations and the prospects for the nominally 'Christian' majority and Muslim minority. The discourse often references the Jews of Europe as a guiding precedent. The manifold references to the annals of the Jews during the 1930s, the Second World War and the Holocaust, used by both the Muslim minorities and the European 'white' (sic) majority presents an astonishing and instructive perspective. When researching Europe and its Muslim minorities, one is astonished by the alleged discrimination that the topic produces, in particular the expressions embodied in Islamophobia, Europhobia and anti-Semitism. The book focuses on the exemplary European realities surrounding the 'triangular' interactions and relations between the Europeans, Muslims and Jews. Pork soup, also known as 'identity soup', has been used as a protest in France and Belgium against multicultural life in Europe and against the Muslim migrants who allegedly enjoyed government benefits. If the majority on all sides of the triangle were to unite and marginalize the extreme points of the triangle, not by force but by goodwill, reason and patience, then in time the triangle would slowly but surely resolve itself into a circle. The Jews, Christians, Muslims and non-believers of Europe have before them a challenge.
Europeans, Muslim Immigrants and the onus of European–Jewish Histories
Aspects of the ‘triangular’ relations between Europeans, Muslims and Jews
2 European realities: aspects of the ‘triangular’ relations between Europeans, Muslims and Jews Who are the Muslims in Europe? Who are the migrants in the various European countries? For example, 10 per cent of the 16.3 million Dutch population are immigrants; 886,000 of them, 5.5 per cent, are Muslims, mainly Moroccans and Turks; 60 per cent are under 35, compared to 40 per cent in the general Dutch population. Many of the allochtonen (immigrants) live in ‘the Muslim ghettos’ that nowadays surround the Dutch urban centres. So much of what tolerant Dutch society
Violence à trois
describes them lyrically as spirits made flesh, perfect images of perfect bodies; intertwined in a triangular relationship that is epic, homoerotic and pansexual (Palacios, 2000: 14). Calparsoro himself describes the film as his most sensual and romantic so far, although he implicitly contradicts Palacios in saying that the story is not an epic but rather is about how sensuality can be found anywhere – including, presumably, the back streets of Madrid (Casanova, 2000: 46). One could perhaps take a midway stance between the two to say that the triangle of love between the
Kurys’ authorial signature
or as a woman, the films have in common triangular structures in which she is torn between, or rejected by, or tries to please pairs of others. In the films about the past, the triangles are formed by her mother and father, her mother and sister, or her mother and her mother’s lovers; in the films set in the present, by her own lovers, her lovers and their wives, or her lover and her sister. Two recurrent visual motifs draw
interactions between the contemporary vogue for limning and the miniature, and the long-established traditions of life-size or large-scale portraiture.8 They reflect, as well, the ongoing Elizabeth conversation about size crystallised in Marlowe’s line, ‘infinite riches in a little room’.9 Whereas Holbein and others represented Henry VIII as great, Elizabethan portraitists represented Elizabeth’s power as, instead, a conversation between (as the famous nineteenth-century hymn puts it) great and small.10 The Bachelard quotation that provides the epigraph to my chapter
which sustains regional interactions and is conducive to long-term interest and value change. Similarly to other areas of inquiry, integration is a source of influence on institutions, actors, and processes pertaining to the domestic level of politics, as well as international interaction. European integration creates a variety of outcomes: transformative, institutional, and political (Hartlapp 2007
The legacy of Wilfrid?
. 102.10 It encompasses Matthew 2.13–22.15, the first part of Mark to the end and Luke 1.57–16.15. A second uncial scribe writing a very similar script copied fols 52–86: the second part of the Gospel of Mark and the first part of Luke. David Wright described their script as ‘curiously awkward and elaborate uncial script, with triangular serifs forced upon the tail of G and the upper bowl of the B’.11 The fork of Y is particularly deep, starting just below the line of writing; S looks awkward because of the length of the horizontal strokes; and there are large
Hallucinating conflict in the political and personal frontiers of Ulster during the IRA border campaign of 1920–22
with them the following night but at 9.30 p.m. rather than 10 p.m. The next morning, J. M. reported a long and complex interaction he had with the ‘Lady in the Picture’. This female figure threatened to kill J. M., claiming that he had fathered a child with her daughter and that she would take all his earnings to maintain the child. She also told him that she had told
63 Affective image operations Jens Eder1 Images enter the interactional networks of political conflict in various ways. Often, they motivate political action by evoking emotions and affects. This is evident, for instance, in visual propaganda, images of terror, donation campaigns or activist videos like Kony2012. Aiming to mobilise a movement against a brutal warlord, the documentary made calculated use of cinematic techniques to maximise viewers’ emotional responses. It went viral on social media platforms and was soon watched more than 100 million times. The
therefore diminished. Added to this, the Heath government’s confirmation of the British withdrawal East of Suez meant that the opportunity for potential US–UK interaction declined. Along with this, a number of policy decisions concerning the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system; the war between India and Pakistan in 1971; the evolution of triangular diplomacy between the US, USSR and PRC, and Britain’s bid for membership of the EEC caused difficulties for US−UK relations. In spite of this, there was also a remarkable amount of cooperation between the two sides which is