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Hakim Khaldi

medical supplies to some of these areas, but only by negotiating with Damascus would it be possible to get aid through in sufficient quantity and of acceptable quality. Various attempts were made to contact the Syrian authorities using a number of channels that I have split into three categories: attempts at direct contact, the ‘BRICS’ (Brazil, Russia, China, India, South Africa) card and the Russian option. This article does not cover the full range of initiatives undertaken

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
‘We Want “U” In’
Janet McBain

This short essay draws on research undertaken by the curator of the Scottish Screen Archive on the few surviving films credited to Greens Film Service of Glasgow in the teens and twenties. The research revealed a dynamic family business, born out of the travelling cinematograph shows of the late nineteenth century, growing to assume a dominant role in the Scottish cinema trade in the silent era, across exhibition, distribution and production. One small part of a lost film history waiting for rediscovery – early cinema in Scotland.

Film Studies
Roger Forshaw

Hesyre was a high court official in ancient Egypt and lived about 2650 bc during the reign of King Djoser. He managed to combine religious as well as secular posts, and has the distinction of being the first recorded physician and firstknown dentist in history. Healthcare developed at an early period in ancient Egyptian history as is supported by the evidence from the skeletal and mummified remains, from the artistic record, as well as from inscriptional and textual sources. These textual sources, the medical papyri, provide details of medical procedures undertaken, drugs employed and treatments provided - some of which have influenced modern medical practice. What we know about Hesyre comes from his impressive tomb at Saqqara, the walls of which are brightly decorated with items of daily life. Additionally, the tomb contained six fine wooden panels listing Hesyres titles, among them those relating to his practice of medicine and dentistry.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
José Luís Fiori

) The White House published the new ‘National Security Strategy of the United States of America’ at the end of 2017, as the first year of President Donald Trump’s mandate was coming to an end ( The White House, 2017 ). It is a broad declaration, which defines the principal interests of the US and the actions that will be undertaken to protect national security against every kind of threat, from all over the world. It would be a mistake to treat this as just one more periodic document produced for bureaucratic purposes. The strategy was developed by

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be Improved?
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell

economy become entrenched, battles become rarer and selective cooperation among warring factions becomes the norm. Armed operations may be undertaken more for commercial purposes than in pursuit of military victory. The most egregious examples of collusion across front lines involves the trade and smuggling of weapons between belligerents. This was the case in Yemen, where weapons supplied by the Saudi-led coalition to allied militia have appeared in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

primarily from a set of extensive semi-structured interviews conducted with 118 individuals with a broad scope of professional experience in the humanitarian sector. The interviewee pool includes practitioners with substantial field experience working for United Nations (UN) agencies; international and national non-governmental organisations (NGOs); the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement; and professional fora and associations in the humanitarian sector. Interviewees discussed humanitarian operations undertaken around the globe: in Africa, the Middle East, the Asia

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Framework for Measuring Effectiveness in Humanitarian Response
Vincenzo Bollettino and Birthe Anders

militaries who provide liaisons to the in-country civil–military coordination platform. a) Number___ b) Countries participating, if known c) Ranks of personnel, if known 12. Total military taskings undertaken to respond to direct national military requests. a) Number of taskings completed___ b) Number of taskings incomplete___ 13. Humanitarian organisations share information on civil–military coordination with one another. a) Yes b) No 14. How did the transition of military responsibilities to humanitarian agencies or national agencies go upon the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Logan Cochrane

four of these organisations were able to provide evaluation reports (the majority that did reply had not conducted evaluations of their activities or had not made the reports public). Given the time-intensive nature of this component of the process, and the limited results it offered, identifying and contacting individual organisations would not be undertaken in future efforts of this nature. Attempting to contact all organisations operational in South Sudan was a fruitful experience, as it highlighted how few organisations are conducting evaluations and that the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

genocide in Rwanda to take place. The genocide of the Tutsi was never inevitable, it was foreseen, and it could have been stopped. In contrast to authors like Mahmood Mamdani, who argues that the Rwandan genocide was rooted in Rwanda’s colonial history ( Mamdani, 2001 ), Des Forges, although an historian herself, insists that the genocide was not built into the fabric of Rwandan history but was instead a conscious political strategy undertaken by a modern elite. Because the genocide was a well-developed plan, it could have been prevented and, even after it began, it

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Arjun Claire

and technical humanitarian action grounded in the principles of neutrality and impartiality and a more rights-focused humanitarian action driven by humanity and solidarity. Through MSF’s concept of témoignage , this article shows that this tension has always existed, although over the years, the political dimensions of the organisation’s work have been largely undertaken through a medical prism, with medical data becoming the centrepiece of its advocacy work. Where

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs