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Martin Ferguson Smith

1. “Suicidal mania” In the summer of 1913, about a year after her marriage to Leonard Woolf (10 August 1912), Virginia Woolf suffered a serious nervous breakdown. It was by no means the first such episode, and it was not to be the last. Her mental instability is likely to have had a genetic origin, 1 but to have been aggravated by events in her childhood and young adulthood, including the deaths of her mother, Julia Stephen, in 1895, her half-sister Stella Hills née Duckworth in 1897, and her

in In and out of Bloomsbury
Yoshiki Tajiri

Ordinary objects in Woolf and Beckett 135 6 Trauma and ordinary objects in Virginia Woolf and Samuel Beckett Yoshiki Tajiri Introduction: trauma and everyday life While trauma studies and everyday life studies may be deemed two of the most salient trends in literary studies since the 2000s, they do not often seem to intersect with each other.1 Current trauma studies began to flourish in the mid-1990s mainly through deconstructionists’ attempts to re-engage with history, though the notion of trauma itself was elaborated in psychiatry and psychoanalysis from

in Samuel Beckett and trauma
Martin Ferguson Smith

1. Introduction In the spring of 1932 Virginia and Leonard Woolf visited Greece in the company of Roger Fry and his sister Margery Fry. For Leonard and the Frys it was a first visit. For Virginia, who had just turned fifty (25 January), it was a return to the country. She had been there in the autumn of 1906 with her sister, Vanessa, their brothers, Thoby and Adrian, and Violet Dickinson. That visit was followed by a death: Thoby contracted typhoid and died a few weeks after his return to England

in In and out of Bloomsbury
Martin Ferguson Smith

1. Introduction The last book by Virginia Woolf to appear in her lifetime was a biography of the artist and art critic Roger Fry, 1 fellow “Bloomsberry” and close friend from 1911 until his death, which, according to her own account, affected her more deeply than that of any other friend. 2 The work, her only book-length biography, was published on 25 July 1940. 3 The writing of it did not come easily to her, and she was worried about the reception it would receive from reviewers

in In and out of Bloomsbury
David Trotter

Film Studies
Rape and Marriage in Go Tell It on the Mountain
Porter Nenon

To consider how James Baldwin resisted racialized notions of sexuality in his first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain, I employ a number of black feminist critics—including Saidiya Hartman, Patricia Williams, Hortense Spillers, and Patricia Hill Collins—to analyze three under-studied minor characters: Deborah, Esther, and Richard. Those three characters are best understood as figures of heterosexual nonconformity who articulate sophisticated and important critiques of rape and marriage in America at the turn of the twentieth century. Baldwin thus wrote subversive theories of race and sexuality into the margins of the novel, making its style inextricable from its politics. Baldwin’s use of marginal voices was a deft and intentional artistic choice that was emancipatory for his characters and that remains enduringly relevant to American sexual politics. In this particularly polarizing transition from the Obama era to the Donald J. Trump presidency, I revisit Baldwin’s ability to subtly translate political ideas across fault lines like race, nationality, and sex.

James Baldwin Review
Lucy Bassett and J. Charles Bradley

Substantial evidence across disciplines indicates that children’s early years are critical for building the foundation for optimal development. In contexts of crisis, conflict, disaster and displacement, children are at particular risk. Primary caregivers often have fewer resources and less time to provide children with attention and necessary socio-emotional and cognitive stimulation. Risk factors for children are often multiplied in crises and conflict settings, and access to services becomes more challenging where family and social networks have been weakened and social service delivery interrupted.

To address the needs of young children, we must strengthen humanitarian response. Practitioners often use humanitarian standards and guidance to systematise planning, implementation and evaluation of programming. These documents describe the broad principles and essential elements (i.e. specific benchmarks and actions) for high-quality response, reflecting best practices at a global level.

We analysed the degree to which existing humanitarian standards and guidance documents explicitly recognise young children and their caregivers in humanitarian response and looked at gaps in the five areas that experts agree are essential for children’s holistic development: good health, adequate nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving and opportunities for early learning. We then made recommendations for achieving more comprehensive and consolidated guidance to address early childhood development in emergencies.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Presumed black immunity to yellow fever and the racial politics of burial labour in 1855 Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia
Michael D. Thompson

Epidemic disease regularly tore through nineteenth-century American cities, triggering public health crises and economic upheaval. These epidemic panics also provoked new racialised labour regimes, affecting the lives of innumerable working people. During yellow fever outbreaks, white authorities and employers preferred workers of colour over ‘unacclimated’ white immigrants, reflecting a common but mistaken belief in black invulnerability. This article chronicles enslaved burial labourers in antebellum Virginia, who leveraged this notion to seize various privileges – and nearly freedom. These episodes demonstrate that black labour, though not always black suffering or lives, mattered immensely to white officials managing these urban crises. Black workers were not mere tools for protecting white wealth and health, however, as they often risked torment and death to capitalise on employers’ desperation for their essential labour. This history exposes racial and socioeconomic divergence between those able to shelter or flee from infection, and those compelled to remain exposed and exploitable.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Abstract only
The relief of distress
Virginia Crossman

compared to 8 per cent in Leinster. Return showing the Area, Population, Pauperism and Expenditure for the Relief of the Poor in Ireland, PP, 1874 (409), lvi, 933-1043. For the government response to distress during these years, see the papers of Thomas Larcom (under-secretary 1853-68): NLI, Ms 77835. Cormac Ó Gráda, Ireland: A New Economic History 1780-1939 (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1994), p. 253. Robinson to Harrel, 13 Nov 1894; note by Morley, 14 Nov. 1894: NAI, CSORP, 1896/14603. Relief measures introduced during this period are discussed in more detail in Virginia

in Politics, pauperism and power in late nineteenth-century Ireland
Abstract only
Children’s encounters with ancient Egypt in the long nineteenth century
Virginia Zimmerman

. , On Exhibit: Victorians and their Museums ( Charlottesville : University Press of Virginia , 2000 ). Brantlinger , P. , Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830–1914 ( Ithaca : Cornell University Press , 1988 ). Budge , E. A. W. , Egyptian Magic ( Evanston : University Books , 1958 ). [ Budge , E. A. W

in Pasts at play