Archaeology and Heritage

Interactional strategies in late-nineteenth-century Classical archaeology: the case of Adolf Furtwängler
Ulf R. Hansson

This chapter examines collegiality and the instrumentality of informal networks in the production of knowledge around 1900 as exemplified by the German classical archaeologist Adolf Furtwängler (1853–1907). Based on a relatively well documented case from the formative period in the modern history of Classical archaeology, this chapter explores how and to what extent various dynamic processes within the discipline can be affected when a key actor in the system for some reason withdraws or is excluded from the social aspects of the profession. Although Furtwängler was one of the most prolific and influential Classical archaeologists of his generation, his wide-ranging contribution is little discussed in the discipline’s modern histories, for various reasons. Based on substantial unpublished archive material that permits a detailed reconstruction of his professional networks and work methods, this chapter discusses Furtwängler’s problematic interaction with the scholarly community and his various strategies for creating and maintaining professional relations with institutions and individuals considered indispensable for his own work.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The key role of the Italian antiquarian market in the inception of American Classical art collections during the late-nineteenth century
Francesca de Tomasi

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the Chicago Art Institute managed their acquisitions of international arts and antiquities through the mediation of salaried agents in Rome who made purchases on their behalf. This network made transactions easier and allowed faster connections and the possibility of profitable deals. No Roman scholar, archaeologist or even state official was not called at least once to give an opinion on a purchase, write a report for the granting of an export permit or provide an estimate of the market value of an artwork. They often crossed the boundaries between archaeology and antiquarianism, conservation and collecting, legal and illicit. Among these personalities Wolfgang Helbig and Rodolfo Lanciani were both prominent and dynamic. This chapter answers questions such as: Why did Helbig and Lanciani choose to be intermediaries for overseas museums on the Roman antiquarian market? Was money the only reason? What were the differences between figures like Helbig and Lanciani and those like John Marshall and Edward Perry Warren, who also worked as purchasing agents and intermediaries?

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Was he more than just ‘Dr Took’?
Jonathan R. Trigg

This chapter presents a reflection and assessment of the life, career and work of the little-studied seventeenth-century physician and ‘Renaissance man’ Robert Toope. He is currently, perhaps, chiefly known for his correspondence on wide-ranging, eclectic, subjects with the likes of John Aubrey and Robert Boyle, together with later less-than-complimentary references by William Stukeley. The evidence suggests that the latter, albeit famous, observations were bafflingly unconsidered. Toope was more than merely a product of his time. He was clearly someone who was subject to periods of intense activity that had great influence on the work of his contemporaries and without which we would have far less understanding of the archaeological record of southern Britain. Yet, unlike many fellow antiquarians, for example, he did not publish his own observations, favouring perhaps the communication of such to other contemporary scholars. The chapter highlights the paradigmatic importance of going back to the original sources. It also serves to establish such facts as are known about Toope, correct some misinterpretations and introduce some new information in what is more than merely a nuanced biographical essay.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Antonín Salač and the French School at Athens
Thea De Armond

Prague, though near the centre of Europe, is neither its geopolitical centre, nor the centre of Classics. How, then, might a scholar from Prague gain access to the Classical past or contribute to wider – particularly, European – conversations about Graeco-Roman antiquity? This chapter, drawing on archival research on the Czech classicist Antonín Salač (1885–1960), will consider some of the routes traced by knowledge about the Classical past in the Czechoslovakia of the first half of the twentieth century. Antonín Salač was a prominent epigrapher and archaeologist, who lived and worked in Prague for most of his life. But Prague – in fact, most of Czechoslovakia – lacked Classical material; certainly, it lacked in situ archaeological remains. Thus, Salač’s international bona fides were – and had to be – considerable. In his relationship with France, we will see how a scholar from a non-imperial nation might insinuate himself into what was, for the most part, a conversation between empires – through a savvy leveraging of geopolitics. The tragedy, of course, is that Salač’s relationships were never purely ‘political’. So, the loss of contact with his French colleagues after the 1948 coup d’état was also ‘personal’.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
James Breasted’s early scientific network
Kathleen Sheppard

This chapter examines the importance of place in building and maintaining scientific networks for the field scientist by using James Henry Breasted and his early network as a case study. There are a number of important factors that go into relationship dynamics among scientific practitioners, such as age, professional experience, and gender; however, each of these factors also affected where and how Breasted met these scholars. Examining Breasted’s relationships with Flinders Petrie and Gaston Maspero will reveal the nuances behind the varying sites of knowledge creation and the effect that the urban institution or the rural field site can have on the development of scientific networks, their means of communication, and the scholarship that results from these relationships.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The permeable clusters of Hanna Rydh
Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

This chapter discusses the Swedish reception of two articles that Rydh wrote after contact with French international research. We meet Hanna Rydh in the 1920s when she was establishing her position as an archaeologist. She had to navigate a male-oriented discipline, even though the archaeological scene was not explicitly homogeneous. Other Nordic countries, and to some extent Mediterranean and other European countries, were linked by scholarly discussions. However, few thematic meetings took place between Scandinavians and non-Scandinavians and few Scandinavians developed theoretical approaches, except for theories about culture and people. In these articles Rydh used Durkheimian ideas, for example that manifestations of group or community life may be connected to a more general social order, and that social structure and organisation can be observed and maintained on different levels in social life. At that time, such thinking was unusual within Swedish archaeology, and Rydh probably got her inspiration at St-Germain-en-Laye. The harsh reception of the articles is discussed from perspectives of intersecting axes of power such as profession, gender and economy, relating these to various social clusters of which Rydh was a part.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Anne Carol, Jefrey Gamarra, Carolina Kobelinsky, and Bob Simpson
Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Antonius C. G. M. Robben

Thousands of people died in Rotterdam during the Second World War in more than 300 German and Allied bombardments. Civil defence measures had been taken before the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940 and these efforts were intensified during the country’s occupation as Allied bombers attacked Rotterdam’s port, factories, dry docks and oil terminals. Residential neighbourhoods were also hit through imprecise targeting and by misfired flak grenades. Inadequate air raid shelters and people’s reluctance to enter them caused many casualties. The condition of the corpses and their post-mortem treatment was thus co-constituted by the relationship between the victims and their material circumstances. This article concludes that an understanding of the treatment of the dead after war, genocide and mass violence must pay systematic attention to the materiality of death because the condition, collection and handling of human remains is affected by the material means that impacted on the victims.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Thomas Vaisset

On 25 September 1911 the battleship Liberté exploded in Toulon harbour. This tragedy is just one of the many disasters that the French fleet suffered at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries and also represents the peak of these calamities, since it is undoubtedly the most deadly suffered by a French Navy ship in peacetime. The aim of this article is to study how the navy managed this disaster and the resulting deaths of service personnel, which were all the more traumatic because the incident happened in France’s main military port and in circumstances that do not match the traditional forms of death at sea.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Benoît Pouget
Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal