Art, Architecture and Visual Culture

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Assassinations and bomb attacks in the late nineteenth and early twenty-first centuries
Charlotte Klonk

The introduction argues that images are of central importance in the propagation of acts of terror. Where an inferior militant group challenges the supremacy of the state, it is not the actual number of casualties that counts but the capacity to spread horror and fear among the masses and potential glory among sympathisers. The chapter introduces the concept of patterns of images in the media, discusses the concept of media frames and the term terror as well as the literature on terrorism and concludes with a critical reflection on the evidentiary character of pictures in this context. It establishes that fighting with images is a kind of psychological battle in which unintended consequences are the rule rather than the exception.

in Terror
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Hostage-takings and aircraft hijackings since the 1960s
Charlotte Klonk

In the second half of the twentieth century another form of terror dominated the media: hostage-takings and aircraft hijackings. The images that appeared in the media differed from bomb attacks and explosions in significant ways. Instead of suggesting proximity to the events, portraits of hostages circulated that showed individuals at unknown and distant places. Hence the visual reportage is usually characterised by an uncanny mixture of distance and urgency. Case studies in this chapter range chronologically from the Tupamaros in Uruguay to the RAF in Germany in the 1970s, from the mass hostage-takings in Lebanon in the 1980s to Al Qaida and IS footage of beheadings at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The chapter also includes a discussion of aircraft hijackings in the 1970s. It concludes with a reflection on the particular narratives that hostage-taking and hijackings generate in subsequent autobiographies, films and literature. While at the time of the appearance of the images the fate of the victims is uncertain and highly contested, subsequent stories often provide a happy ending and often blur fact and fiction.

in Terror
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Charlotte Klonk

Although bomb attacks and hostage-takings differ in their imagery, they share one common aspect: media reports on acts of terror always include pictures of the perpetrators and normally end when they have been caught and sentenced. The sequence ranges from mug shots of various provenances to surveillance camera footage, from depictions of execution in the nineteenth century to photographs of capture in the twentieth. The chapter discusses the significance of these images for projections of the enemy. Case studies include the most extensive man hunt campaign to this day, the search for members of the German RAF in the 1970s, the ambivalence of imagery of women and of radical-Islamic perpetrators. The chapter also looks at propaganda images issued by militant groups themselves and their attempt for self-promotion in courtrooms. It concludes with a reflection on the general ambivalence of these images. As the case studies from the nineteenth century to today show, nothing and nobody can guarantee that an image which for one side clearly represents an enemy will not become the means for hero worship on the other, and vice versa.

in Terror
From wanted posters to propaganda videos
Charlotte Klonk

In the second half of the twentieth century another form of terror dominated the media: hostage-takings and aircraft hijackings. The images that appeared in the media differed from bomb attacks and explosions in significant ways. Instead of suggesting proximity to the events, portraits of hostages circulated that showed individuals at unknown and distant places. Hence the visual reportage is usually characterised by an uncanny mixture of distance and urgency. Case studies in this chapter range chronologically from the Tupamaros in Uruguay to the RAF in Germany in the 1970s, from the mass hostage-takings in Lebanon in the 1980s to Al Qaida and IS footage of beheadings at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The chapter also includes a discussion of aircraft hijackings in the 1970s. It concludes with a reflection on the particular narratives that hostage-taking and hijackings generate in subsequent autobiographies, films and literature. While at the time of the appearance of the images the fate of the victims is uncertain and highly contested, subsequent stories often provide a happy ending and often blur fact and fiction.

in Terror
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Charlotte Klonk
in Terror
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When images become weapons
Author: Charlotte Klonk

A battle of images is above all a psychological struggle. Unintended consequences are the rule rather than the exception. The book examines the role of images in media reports on terror from the nineteenth century to the present day. Looking at concrete case studies, Charlotte Klonk analyses image strategies and their patterns, traces their historical development and addresses the dilemma of effective counter strikes. She shows that the propaganda videos from the IS are nothing new. On the contrary, perpetrators of terror acts have always made use of images to spread their cause through the media – as did their enemy, the state. In the final chapter, Klonk turns to questions of ethics and considers the grounds for a responsible use of images. This is an indispensable book for understanding the background and dynamic of terror today.

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Kathryn Milligan

This short conclusion summarises the key arguments and findings of Painting Dublin and considers how they relate to visual representations of the city in the present day. It highlights points of connection and departure between artists’ depictions of Dublin and urban painting in other countries; parallels with literature; and places the activity of walking and navigating the city at the centre of this art history.

in Painting Dublin, 1886–1949
Kathryn Milligan

Chapter 3 will show how the depiction of Dublin city and urban life was a consistent theme the work of Jack Butler Yeats (1871–1957) with paintings extending over a wide range of urban subjects and themes, including newspaper boys, flower sellers and dock workers, busy bridges, and the docks. Through a focus on Yeats’s engagement with urban culture generally, and with Dublin in particular, this chapter will readdress this imbalance, demonstrating how his city paintings engage with themes of poverty, sexuality, and popular culture in the early to mid-twentieth century; for example, in relation to jazz and morality. The artist’s routine of walking the city and observing daily life will be shown through his collection of sketchbooks and scrapbooks.

in Painting Dublin, 1886–1949
Kathryn Milligan

Chapter 2 focuses on the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century city, centring on the watercolours and illustrations of Rose Mary Barton (1856–1929). Framed by the themes of gaslight, fog, and the picturesque, Barton’s depiction of Dublin will be explored through her involvement in the city’s vice regal circles, her illustrations for a book on the city’s history published in 1898, and a comparative look at her representations of London. Furthermore, this chapter will consider the development of the theme of ‘old Dublin’ in fine art and popular discourse, and the relationship between Barton’s watercolours and the narrative of Dublin at the end of empire. This theme will be revisited and further explored in the final chapter of this volume.

in Painting Dublin, 1886–1949
Kathryn Milligan

Returning to the theme of ‘old Dublin’, this chapter will examine the contributions of Estella Solomons (1882–1968) and Flora H. Mitchell (1890–1973) to publications on Dublin in the 1920s and 1960s, respectively. The first section of the chapter focuses on Solomons’ training, early revolutionary activity, and her interest in the etching revival, before exploring the eight etchings included in The Glamour of Dublin (1928) in more detail. The second section of the chapter examines Flora Mitchell’s 1966 publication, Vanishing Dublin, which gathered fifty of the artist’s watercolours of streets, buildings, and other landmarks, considering them in relation to contemporary demolition and redevelopment projects. Mitchell’s representation of the disappearing city encapsulates the issues present in the longer history of painting Dublin.

in Painting Dublin, 1886–1949