Kathryn Reeves presented her paper ‘The re-vision of printmaking’ at the first IMPACT International Printmaking Conference in Bristol in 1999. It was clearly intended, as the title suggests, as a challenge to the field. In many respects, her text took up the mantle from Weisberg’s 1986 essay to which Reeves refers and whose critical-theoretical scope she expands. Employing the insights of critical theory, especially semiotics, psychoanalysis and feminism, Reeves demonstrates how these can be fruitfully employed to interrogate issues crucial to print, such as authorship, reproduction and originality.
This chapter examines sleeping beauties in the luxury fashion industry. The term 'sleeping beauty' is used to describe a Parisian haute couture brand that, once world-renowned but long dormant, has been rediscovered and reintroduced as a brand in the contemporary market. Drawing upon the conceptual tool elaborated by Pierre Bourdieu, the chapter analyses the cases of two entrepreneurs, Guy de Lummen and his son Arnaud de Lummen, whose investment in dormant fashion firms exemplifies the sleeping beauty phenomenon. It shows how the father-and-son team appropriated the objectified cultural capital of sleeping beauty brands, both materially and symbolically, first, by buying the legal rights to use them, and second, by acquiring the knowledge necessary to commercialize new products. The chapter builds upon a wide range of unpublished sources, including interviews with Arnaud de Lummen, records of the family's firms, and material and objects held in public institutions.
Haute couture and design management in the postwar era
This chapter explores the struggles of postwar couture from three focal points. First, it focuses on the dissemination of Paris couture through the development of agreements with domestic French manufacturers to reproduce couture lines for a wider audience. Next, the chapter addresses the relationship between the couturiers and the French government, and the politics of subventions granted by the state to haute couture during the 1950s. Haute couture catered to exclusive clients, expecting its designs to trickle down from the top and to be imitated by the lower strata of society. Finally, the chapter examines how entrepreneurs in the couture business sought to protect their portfolios of intellectual property rights in the years around the signature of the Treaty of Rome, 1957, which created the foundation for European integration through the formation of the Common Market. These major developments emerged against the backdrop of the development of the welfare state.
Shiona Chillas, Melinda Grewar, and Barbara Townley
This chapter analyses culture and enterprise with reference to the Scottish textiles, tartan and tweed. It considers how rhythms of culture and enterprise are accommodated in the practices of designers, and operated in the production process itself. The chapter investigates the 'fashion as fast' and 'textiles as slow' opposition by examining where and how the material artefacts are produced; the interactions between textile producers and fashion designers; and how and where the symbolic capital of textiles and fashion is manifest and maintained. It focuses on the symbolic capital of textiles as producers reach back in time to valorize traditional patterns, modes of production, and traditional garments to express the timeless qualities of the cloths. The chapter also focuses on how this is parlayed into economic capital in the sphere of enterprise. It discusses symbolic capital in the field of fashion and the place of time in strategies of distinction.
Many Bostonians were proud of their Puritan heritage, but New England was also home to many hyphenated Americans who traced their roots to Southern, Central, and Eastern Europe. This chapter examines how America's largest fashion retailer integrated European imports into store promotions aimed to reach consumers at all price points. It focuses on the retail professionals who brought European fashion merchandise to the United States and created mechanisms for the dissemination of European style. Cultural analysis is extended to the activities of retail buying, fashion merchandising, and fashion promotion. The focus is on a key group of intermediaries, namely the buyers, stylists, fashion directors, merchandisers, and managers at William Filene's, who harnessed European prestige to sell fashion merchandise made at home and abroad to American consumers. These efforts produced successes such as Fashionations, until major social and cultural shifts upset the apple cart.
In 1994 art historian and curator Richard Field published his thirty ‘sentences on printed art’, inspired by Sol LeWitt’s ‘Sentences on Conceptual Art’ of 1969. Ideally suited as a series of theses for further discussion, the sentences highlight, in a nutshell, many of the concrete features of the production of prints and their qualities as objects.
Polish artist Andrzej Bednarczyk’s text serves to highlight an approach to print from a non-Anglo-Saxon country with its different philosophical and cultural traditions. The English translation of the text maintains the term ‘graphic art’, which is rather more prevalent in European languages than ‘printmaking’. The term itself indicates a breadth not as easily connoted by the word ‘printmaking’. Furthermore, the author also highlights the importance of differentiating between ‘graphic technique’ and ‘graphic art’.
This text uses a non-artistic mode of printing to ask profound questions about the sensory and ‘spiritual’ properties of technologies, even the most pithy ones. The issue of the joyfully eclectic journal Cabinet in which this text appeared was dedicated to the theme of ‘Learning’. The text, billed as the autobiographical work of a Brazilian poet and graphic artist called Yara Flores, compares vividly, poetically and with ironic detachment as well as some nostalgia the ‘spiritual’ power – or the sensory and metaphorical potency – of a now outdated technical mode of reproduction with its successor, the Xerox machine.
The text by curator and art historian Mari Carmen Ramírez constitutes an excellent general introduction to the function of biennales. It also contextualises the Biennale of San Juan’s distinctive location in Puerto Rico which is characterised as a ‘hinge’ between South and North America.
In the shortened but otherwise unchanged chapter from her book The Image Multiplied, published in 1987, art historian and curator Susan Lambert provides an invaluable insight into the historical relationship between prints as reproductions and the question of the ‘original’ print. She demonstrates that, historically, not only were these notions and attendant practices considered less important than more recently, but they were also less clearly defined.