History

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Expansion and scrutiny
Martin Crawford

1849 witnessed the high point of the Society’s recruitment following its expansion to other trades and regions. As it expanded, its activities came under greater scrutiny. Criticism came from various sources, with the mercurial preacher and editor, Joseph Barker, initially sympathetic, channelling much of it. The chapter analyses the widely differing views of the Society’s progress and conduct in early 1849, and the efforts of William Evans to defend it and himself against increasingly personalised attacks. The focus then switches to Wisconsin and the emigrants’ struggles to establish themselves in the unfamiliar environment. The arrival of the Society’s agent, Thomas Twigg, marked a turning point. Charged with overseeing the colony’s expansion, Twigg selected 50,000 acres along the Fox River, land he hoped would benefit from the major navigational improvements then under way. By the early summer, parties from Lancashire, Scotland, London, Birmingham and the Potteries began arriving in considerable numbers. The discussion tracks this movement and examines their early settlement on the ‘Indian Lands’. In England the departure of several hundred members led to intense debate concerning the Society’s organisation and structure and renewed fears about resources, with the fund-raising now centred on Twigg’s proposed grist mill. In October he left Wisconsin and returned to England, determined to explain in person his actions to develop the American colony and to impress on members at home the need for additional resources. Arriving in December, he and Evans embarked on a nationwide tour of the Society’s branches.

in Land and labour
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Crisis and decline
Martin Crawford

The chapter charts the final year in the Society’s history. It opens with the visit to Wisconsin of its most influential critic, Joseph Barker, and tracks his continuing quarrel with William Evans as he and Thomas Twigg concluded their British tour. By early 1850 the Society was at a crossroads, its future in jeopardy unless it solved its funding problems. The chapter examines its membership and finances and explains the steps taken to address organisational and resource issues. It notes the growing authority of the London branches and assesses the situation in the Potteries, where core supporters attempted to shore up the commitment to emigration. The focus then switches to the United States. During Twigg’s absence from Wisconsin, disquiet among settlers led to significant dissent which did not dissipate on his return in April. Letters home attacking the colony’s management began to appear in British newspapers, providing a mirror image of American settlement to the earlier correspondence. In claiming that settlers had been forced to endure appalling conditions, they made serious allegations about the colony’s management and the legal fragility of the Society’s land tenure on the new estate. Calls for an investigation grew, and in June a group of settlers formalised their criticisms in a 750-word memorial published in the local newspaper and subsequently reprinted in Britain. The remainder of the chapter documents the efforts to counter these attacks. It culminates in the takeover of the Society by the London branches, effectively marking its dissolution.

in Land and labour
Fugitivity and forced exile in the age of American revolution, 1770–1783
Karen Cook Bell

This chapter examines the escape and forced exile of a mulatto woman named Margaret Grant who fled slavery in Baltimore, Maryland in 1770 and 1773. The analyses presented focus on exile as dissent and resistance and the multiple layers of exile such as forced removal, displacement, and agency that Margaret experienced. At stake in this discussion of fugitive women is demonstrating that black women’s resistance in the form of truancy and escape were central components of abolitionism during the Revolutionary Era. In fact, motherhood, freedom, and love of family propelled black women to escape bondage during the Revolutionary Era. By excavating the story of Margaret and other fugitive women, the integral role of black women in the eighteenth-century U.S. abolitionist movement is manifest.

in Women in exile in early modern Europe and the Americas
Gwenda Morgan

In the work of nineteenth-century historians women sank further into obscurity, with the singular exception of the writings of Elizabeth Ellet (1818–1877). Bancroft and Hildreth contented themselves with retelling the stories of the deaths of Jane McCrea and Hannah Caldwell. Modern women's history has its roots in the new social history and upheavals of the 1960s when old barriers came down, fresh vistas opened up, and the affinity of the social sciences with history was recognized. The rate of female literacy remained stagnant while that of men forged ahead. John Shy, one of the first of the new military historians, considered that the Americans were disadvantaged by the fact that they had fewer female support staff than the British, but Washington thought there were too many and that they put a strain on scarce resources.

in The debate on the American Revolution
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Resistance and revolution
Gwenda Morgan

At the time of the Revolution, African Americans, nearly all of them slaves, numbered approximately twenty per cent of the population, a larger proportion than at any time before or since. Insofar as African Americans were discussed at all by the revolutionary generation of historians, it was as a consequence of their status as enslaved workers on southern plantations where they constituted a potential danger to the rest of the population. Resistance was not random but calculated to exploit those times when whites were at a disadvantage such as during epidemics, war and natural disasters and the political conflict with Britain presented further opportunities. When the Revolution came, the existence of slavery among European Americans struggling for their own freedom was an embarrassment to some, an opportunity for others and inconsequential to most.

in The debate on the American Revolution
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The state and voluntary action in Australia
Paul Smyth

In 2008, the newly elected Labor government of Australia initiated a public consultation process for establishing a national compact with the voluntary sector. This chapter suggests that the future of the voluntary welfare sector in Australia will depend on how the roles of the state and the market are reset within Australia's adaptation of the social inclusion agenda. It emphasises the importance of understanding the sector in its relation to other welfare providers. The author argues that there has been some re-invention of the role of the voluntary sector in recent times. He contends that Beveridge's ideas in Voluntary action were not seen as offering a serious alternative to the role of the state in welfare. The author takes us through the development of the voluntary sector since 1945, emphasising the shifts with a focus on the relationship between the state and voluntary sector.

in Beveridge and voluntary action in Britain and the wider British world
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William Faulkner

This story concerns the romantic rivalry between the American Sartoris and the English Captain Spoomer for the affections of the same woman - twice. The narrator of the story is nameless, a man with a mechanical leg who censors the mail coming in and out. The mail plays a key role in the telling of the story. Spoomer and Sartoris first came together in 1917. Sartoris was an American, from a plantation at Mississippi, where they grew grain and Negroes, or the Negroes grew the grain-something. Sartoris had a working vocabulary of perhaps two hundred words. The narrator gathered from a sergeant that the contest between the squadron commander and one of his greenest cubs was the object of general interest and the subject of the warmest conversation and even betting among the enlisted element of the whole sector of French and British troops.

in Women, Men and the Great War
David Carlton

Immediately after Pearl Harbor Churchill's first wish was to hasten to Washington for a meeting with Roosevelt. But he was given no clear encouragement until after Germany had declared war on the United States. In fact, the United States continued to devote much attention and manpower to the Pacific theatre and as a result Churchill was gradually forced to recognise that the defeat of Hitler would be a more protracted affair than he had anticipated. Churchill himself had said in 1941 that 'if Hitler invaded Hell he would at least make a favourable reference to the Devil'. And by 1943 much of British public opinion, fed on a media diet of adulation for 'our gallant allies', thought of the Soviets in much friendlier terms than that. Churchill's increasing propensity to appease Moscow was to be decisively reinforced at the Teheran Summit Conference which opened on 28 November 1943.

in Churchill and The Soviet Union
The evolution of the Irish Catholic hierarchy, 1600–49
Tadhg Ó hAnnracháin

The purpose of this chapter is to trace the evolution and chief characteristics of this alternative ecclesiastical establishment, concentrating in particular on what emerged as the hierarchical apex of Catholic clerical organization, the episcopate. While the majority of the bishops were of the secular clergy, the hierarchy contained a substantial regular minority. Papal recognition of the confederates also highlighted the importance of the bishops. PierFrancesco Scarampi, the first Italian papal envoy to the association, clearly acknowledged the leadership role of the hierarchy. It seems probable, for instance, that without the leadership of the Irish hierarchy, both as members of the Confederate Supreme Council and General Assembly and even more importantly within convocation, that the Marquis of Ormond would have been able to finalize a peace settlement with the confederate Catholics of Ireland, and make it stick, considerably earlier in the decade than 1649.

in Insular Christianity
Robert Armstrong
and
Tadhg Ó hAnnracháin

Complaints about strict governance, use of spies among the students, financial irregularities, administrative incompetence, and the siphoning off of students for the Society of Jesus resulted in visitations, memorials and expulsions. Jesuit, especially English, rectors blamed discontent on agents sent by the Elizabethan government to infiltrate the college, and on the exploitation of naive students by unscrupulous anti-Jesuit English exiles. Catholicism and Presbyterianism were the most powerful alternatives to the varieties of Protestant episcopalianism, which more often than not secured the backing of governments from the 1560s to the 1680s, challenging that order in each of the three insular kingdoms. The Society of Jesus did develop a pedagogical strategy, the famous Ratio studiorum, but in the case of the English, Irish and Scots colleges, Jesuit superiors did not proceed so clearly and coherently. The progress of Hugh O'Neill's war against England furthered a rift between Irish and English exiles.

in Insular Christianity